Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 1, January 2000
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428308View Description Hide Description
The Tokyo Opera City concert hall seats 1632, volume 15 300 m3, and reverberation time, with audience and orchestra, 1.95 s. As part of the design process, measurements on CAD computer and 1:10 wooden models of the hall and full-sized materials samples were conducted over a 5-yr. period. The hall in plan is rectangular. The ceiling is a distorted pyramid, with its peak 28 m above the main floor and nearer the stage than the rear of the hall. This unique shape was analyzed on the models so that all interior surfaces combine to distribute sources on the stage uniformly over the seating areas and to yield optimum values for reverberation time (RT), early decay time (EDT), interaural cross-correlation coefficient bass ratio (BR), initial-time-delay gap (ITDG), strength (G), and sound diffusion index (SDI) [for definitions see L. Beranek, Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, Woodbury, NY, 1996)]. On the long ceiling facing the stage, Schroeder QRD diffusers provide diffusion, eliminate a possible echo, and strengthen lateral reflections. Performers and critics judge the acoustics excellent.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428564View Description Hide Description
Architect Takahiko Yanagisawa’s preface explains his approach to the design. The NNT opera house seats 1810, its volume is 14 500 m3, and its reverberation time, with audience, is 1.5 s (proscenium curtain open). Measurements on CAD computer and 1:10 wooden models and full-sized materials samples were conducted over a 7-yr. period. The main floor is almost rectangular, the three balconies have modest fan shape in plan, although the balcony facia at each level create a rectangular shape. The unique design has a large curved reflector in front of and above the proscenium and six curved reflecting surfaces at the front ends of the three side balconies to form, in combination, an “acoustic trumpet.” These surfaces, along with the balcony faces and the shaped ceiling, distribute the singers’ voices uniformly over the seating areas from a large portion of the large stage at sound levels that easily override the orchestra in the pit.
Objective and subjective evaluations of twenty-three opera houses in Europe, Japan, and the Americas107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428309View Description Hide Description
The room acoustical parameters, reverberation time RT, early decay time EDT, clarity factor bass ratio BR, strength G, interaural cross-correlation coefficient IACC, and initial-time-delay gap ITDG [definitions in Hidaka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 340–354 (2000) and Beranek, Concert and Opera Halls: How They Sound (Acoustical Society of America, New York, 1996)], were measured in 23 major opera houses under unoccupied conditions in 11 countries: Argentina, Austria, Czech, France, England, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, and the USA. Questionnaires containing rating scales on the acoustical quality of 24 opera houses were mailed to 67 conductors, 22 of whom responded. The objective measurements were analyzed for reliability and orthogonality, and were related to the subjective responses. Presented are (a) the rankings of 21 opera houses each rated by at least 6 conductors for acoustical quality as heard by them both in the audience areas and in the pit; (b) relations between objective room acoustical parameters and subjective ratings; (c) findings of the most important of the parameters for determining acoustical quality: RT (or EDT), ITDG, texture (appearance of reflectrograms in the first 80–100 ms after arrival of the direct sound), a lower limiting value for BR, and major concern for diffusion and avoidance of destructive characteristics (noise, vibration, echoes, focusing, etc.); (d) the differences between average audience levels with and without enclosed stage sets; and (e) the differences between average levels in audience areas for sounds from the stage and from the pit.