Volume 107, Issue 2, February 2000
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
Rotating machinery dynamics simulation. I. Rigid systems with ball bearing nonlinearities and outer ring ovality under rotating unbalance excitation107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428360View Description Hide Description
The radial clearance in rolling bearing systems, required to compensate for dimensional changes associated with thermal expansion of the various parts during operation, may cause dimensional attrition and comprise bearing life, if unloaded operation occurs and balls skid [D. Childs and D. Moyer, ASME J. Eng. Gas Turb. Power 107, 152–159 (1985)]. Also, it can cause jumps in the response to unbalance excitation. These undesirable effects may be eliminated by introducing two or more loops into one of the bearing races so that at least two points of the ring circumference provide a positive zero clearance [D. Childs, Handbook of Rotordynamics, edited by F. Ehrich (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1992)]. The deviation of the outer ring with two loops, known as ovality, is one of the bearing distributed defects. Although this class of imperfections has received much work, none of the available studies has simulated the effect of the outer ring ovality on the dynamic behavior of rotating machinery under rotating unbalance with consideration of ball bearing nonlinearities, shaft elasticity, and speed of rotation. To fill this gap, the equations of motion of a rotor–ball bearing system are formulated using finite-elements (FE) discretization and Lagrange’s equations. The analyses are specialized to a rigid-rotor system, by retaining the rigid body modes only in the FE solution. Samples of the results are presented in both time domain and frequency domain for a system with and without outer ring ovality. It is found that with ideal bearings (no ovality), the vibration spectrum is qualitatively and quantitatively the same in both the horizontal and vertical directions. When the ring ovality is introduced, however, the spectrum in both orthogonal planes is no longer similar. And magnitude of the bearing load has increased in the form of repeated random impacts, between balls and rings, in the horizontal direction (direction of maximum clearance) compared to a continuous contact along the vertical direction (direction of positive zero clearance). This underlines the importance of the vibration measuring probe’s direction, with respect to the outer ring axes, to capture impact-induced vibrations. Moreover, when the harmonic excitation is increased for a system with ideal bearings, the spectral peaks above forcing frequency have shifted to a higher-frequency region, indicating some sort of a hard spring mechanism inherent in the system. Another observation, is that for the same external excitation, vibration amplitude at forcing frequency in the bearing force spectrum is the same for systems with or without outer ring ovality.
Reverberation time and maximum background-noise level for classrooms from a comparative study of speech intelligibility metrics107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428268View Description Hide Description
Speech intelligibility metrics that take into account sound reflections in the room and the background noise have been compared, assuming diffuse sound field. Under this assumption, sound decays exponentially with a decay constant inversely proportional to reverberation time. Analytical formulas were obtained for each speech intelligibility metric providing a common basis for comparison. These formulas were applied to three sizes of rectangular classrooms. The sound source was the human voice without amplification, and background noise was taken into account by a noise-to-signal ratio. Correlations between the metrics and speech intelligibility are presented and applied to the classrooms under study. Relationships between some speech intelligibility metrics were also established. For each noise-to-signal ratio, the value of each speech intelligibility metric is maximized for a specific reverberation time. For quiet classrooms, the reverberation time that maximizes these speech intelligibility metrics is between 0.1 and 0.3 s. Speech intelligibility of 100% is possible with reverberation times up to 0.4–0.5 s and this is the recommended range. The study suggests “ideal” and “acceptable” maximum background-noise level for classrooms of 25 and 20 dB, respectively, below the voice level at 1 m in front of the talker.
Broadband control of plate radiation using a piezoelectric, double-amplifier active-skin and structural acoustic sensing107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428361View Description Hide Description
The potential of a piezoelectric, double-amplifier active-skin with structural acoustic sensing (SAS) is demonstrated for the reduction of broadband acoustic radiation from a clamped, aluminum plate. The active-skin is a continuous covering of the vibrating portions of the plate with active, independently controllablepiezoelectric, double-amplifier elements and is designed to affect control by altering the continuous structural radiation impedance rather than structural vibration. In simulation, acoustic models are sought for the primary and secondary sources that incorporate finite element methods. Simulation indicates that a total radiated power attenuation in excess of 10 dB may be achieved between 250 and 750 Hz with microphone error sensing, while under SAS the radiated power is reduced by nearly 8 dB in the same frequency range. In experiment, the adaptive feed forward filtered-x LMS (least mean square) algorithm, implemented on a Texas Instruments C40 DSP, was used in conjunction with the 6I6O control system. With microphone error sensing, 11.8-dB attenuation was achieved in the overall radiated power between 175 and 600 Hz, while inclusion of SAS resulted in a 7.3-dB overall power reduction in this frequency band.