Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 5, May 2000
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
Three-dimensional acoustic scattering from a penetrable layered cylindrical obstacle in a horizontally stratified ocean waveguide107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428627View Description Hide Description
In this work, a normal-mode solution is presented for the three-dimensional problem of acoustic scattering from a penetrable horizontally layered cylindrical obstacle in a shallow-water waveguide. The ocean environment around the obstacle is considered horizontally stratified and the bottom is assumed to be rigid. In the general case of depth-dependent sound-speed and density profiles (ssdp) the total acoustic field is calculated numerically, while an analytic solution is obtained in the special case of depth-independent ssdp. Numerical results concerning the transmission loss outside and inside single or double-layered cylindrical structures made of acoustic materials are given for a typical depth-dependent ocean environment. Comparisons with the cases of ideally soft and ideally hard cylindrical obstacles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 206–218 (1996)] are also made, illustrating the effect of acoustic properties of the obstacle. An important feature, which clearly emerges from the theoretical analysis and the numerical results, is the necessity of including evanescent modes in the calculations, in order to obtain physically meaningful and numerically accurate results. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the scattering cross section of a (penetrable or impenetrable) cylindrical obstacle are derived in terms of the expansion coefficients of the pressure field, and their behavior as frequency increases is numerically investigated. The solution presented in this paper, although addressing a special geometry, provides a means for handling strong discontinuities in both vertical and horizontal directions, and can serve as a benchmark solution to a problem for which no general numerical model exists, i.e., modelingacoustic scattering from a 3D obstacle in a 3D shallow-water waveguide.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428628View Description Hide Description
Temporal and spatial focusing properties of time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) are studied in a waveguide. The experiments are done using an ultrasonic TRM in an idealized waveguide. The width of the focal spot, and the spatial and temporal sidelobe levels are experimentally and numerically analyzed with respect to the characteristics of the waveguide-TRM system. An algorithm is developed to compute directly in the time domain the time-reversed field. This algorithm is based on the application of the mirror theorem to both the source and the TRM placed in the waveguide. Because time reversal is a stable and robust process, some of the ultrasonic results can be extended to ocean acoustics. Applications to underwater acoustic transmissions as well as ultrasonicmedical imaging are discussed.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.428629View Description Hide Description
In 1976, Hughes and Thompson introduced the idea of steering the maximum response of a linear array by amplitude weighting the output signals of the elements, thus eliminating the need for time delays or phase-shift networks. Currently that amplitude-steered array concept is being extended to a broadband two-dimensional array that can be used for real-time three-dimensional imaging. In shifting the use of the amplitude-steered array from underwater acoustic communications to imaging, we must consider different issues of the array’s performance such as lateral and axial resolution. For the linear amplitude-steered array, we show that both lateral and axial resolution are limited by the length of the array. The dependence of axial resolution on the length of the array is a unique feature of the amplitude-steered array, leading to an interesting tradeoff between lateral and axial resolution. A theoretical basis for the dependence is developed and simulation results are given.