Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2000
Index of content:
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429399View Description Hide Description
A high-resolution octave band air sonar for spatial sensing and object imaging by blind persons is described. The system has wide-angle overlapping peripheral fields of view with a narrow central field superposed. It is noninvasively coupled to the auditory system for neural processing and spatial imaging. Blind persons learn to comprehend the auditory cortical multiple-object image that is created. The real-time synchronous relationship between hearing a change in the sensorsounds and the sensed motor actions causing the change seems to aid the learning process. Computer based testing of the sensor system is described so as to relate the physical system performance with the time-varying human auditory perception. This is so that the basic psychometric experiments studying the sensor bio-acoustic spatial resolution, resulting from the superposition of two wide-angle peripheral fields with one central narrow field, may be better understood. These tests confirm that the auditory ability of subjects to resolve close objects using the combined fields is significantly improved relative to using the peripheral fields alone. These measurements are supported by blind children learning to use the sensor system.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429400View Description Hide Description
A new method for deconvolution of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements employing multiple-transducer setup is proposed in the paper. An optimal way of estimating the material reflection sequence for a linear signal generation model using maximum a posteriori estimation is proposed. The method combines the measurements from a number of transducers covering different frequency bands yielding an optimal estimate of the reflection sequence. The main idea of this approach is to complement the information unavailable from one transducer in some frequency bands with the information from the other transducers. The method is based on the assumption that the measurements are performed using transducers with identical apertures and apodization, which are located exactly at the same position relative to the test object during the measurement. An error analysis presented in the paper proves that when the above assumptions are fulfilled, the proposed method, by utilizing more data for estimation, consistently yields more accurate reflection sequence estimates than the classical Wiener filter. Experimental evidence is presented using both simulated and real ultrasonic data as a verification of the correctness of the multiple-transducer model and the estimation scheme. An illustration of the advantages of the method is also given using real ultrasonic data.
Design of an optimal wave-vector filter for enhancing the resolution of reconstructed source field by near-field acoustical holography (NAH)107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429401View Description Hide Description
In near-field acoustical holography using the boundary element method, the reconstructed field often diverges due to the presence of small measurement errors. In order to handle this instability in the inverse problem, the reconstruction process should include some form of regularization for enhancing the resolution of source images. The usual method of regularization has been the truncation of wave vectors associated with small singular values, although the determination of an optimal truncation order is difficult. In this article, an iterative inverse solution technique is suggested in which the mean-square error prediction is used. A statistical estimation of the minimum mean-square error between measured pressures and the modelsolution is required for yielding the optimal number of iterations. The continuous curve of an optimal wave-vector filter is designed, for suppressing the high-order modes that can produce large reconstruction errors. Experimental results from a baffled radiator reveal that the reconstruction errors can be reduced by this form of regularization, by at least 48% compared to those without any regularization. In comparison to results using the optimal truncation method of regularization, the new scheme is shown to give further reductions of truncation error of between 7% and 39%, for the example in this article.