Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2000
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429336View Description Hide Description
Six sonic booms, generated by F-4 aircraft under steady flight at a range of altitudes (610–6100 m) and Mach numbers (1.07–1.26), were measured just above the air/sea interface, and at five depths in the water column. The measurements were made with a vertical hydrophone array suspended from a small spar buoy at the sea surface, and telemetered to a nearby research vessel. The sonic boom pressure amplitude decays exponentially with depth, and the signal fades into the ambient noise field by 30–50 m, depending on the strength of the boom at the sea surface. Low-frequency components of the boom waveform penetrate significantly deeper than high frequencies. Frequencies greater than 20 Hz are difficult to observe at depths greater than about 10 m. Underwater sonic boom pressure measurements exhibit excellent agreement with predictions from analytical theory, despite the assumption of a flat air/sea interface. Significant scattering of the sonic boom signal by the rough ocean surface is not detected. Real ocean conditions appear to exert a negligible effect on the penetration of sonic booms into the ocean unless steady vehicle speeds exceed Mach 3, when the boom incidence angle is sufficient to cause scattering on realistic open ocean surfaces.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429337View Description Hide Description
Pressure–time series from breathing-mode oscillation of large (centimeter scale or larger) underwater bubbles reveal much higher decay rates than can be explained using viscous, thermal, or radiative mechanisms which apply to microbubbles. It is shown that if one assumes energy transfer to shape oscillations (surface capillary waves) of large amplitude in subharmonic resonance with the breathing mode [M. S. Longuet-Higgins, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 1414 (1992)], then the shape oscillations can drive fluid motions outside the bubble capable of exciting turbulent instabilities. Application of an appropriate eddyviscosity from mixing-length theory to the viscous decay mechanism appears to offer a credible explanation for the observed large decay rates. An analysis is given to show that energy is transferred from the breathing mode to surface capillaries fast enough to make the proposed decay mechanism viable.