Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2000
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
Refined multiload method for measuring acoustical source characteristics of an intake or exhaust system107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429349View Description Hide Description
The one-port source characteristics in a duct system, viz., source impedance and strength, can be determined by using the four-load method. In this paper, to avoid the instability problem of the conventional four-load method, a new formulation for the multiload method has been proposed, which employs an error function based on the linear, time-invariant source model. It is shown that the method is less sensitive to input errors compared to the previous methods. For a 10% input error, the proposed method yields a relative error in the source resistance that is about 1/100 times smaller than for the conventional method. The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated by two test examples, a loudspeaker and a blower, each operating in a duct. It is observed that the conventional and least-squares methods result in large errors, whereas the present method yields far better agreement with the actual source parameters, as measured by the direct method. The present method is then used to obtain the source parameters on the exhaust side of an operating internal combustion engine. The radiated sound spectrum from the exhaust opening is predicted by using the measured source parameters and the calculated result agrees very well with the measured one.
Control performance and robustness of an active noise control system for uncertain primary sound fields107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429350View Description Hide Description
In this work, the control performance and robustness of an active noise controlsystem subjected to uncertain primary sound fields are investigated. For this purpose, the performance index, residual potential energy in a desired quiet zone, is derived as a function of sound field variables, quiet zone variables, and control system variables. In the presence of uncertainty, typical measures of the robustness and performance of a control system, maximum, minimum, mean, and variance of the performance index are derived theoretically. In addition, based on the least-squares orthogonality principle, the condition for implementing the best-oriented control system, which is robust and can maximize the control performance by using a given number of control sources and sensors, is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate and verify the proposed theory.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429351View Description Hide Description
This paper presents a relaxed condition for “perfect” cancellation of broadband noise in 3D enclosures. On the basis of a truncated modal model, it can be shown that the primary and secondary paths belong to a same subspace if a certain condition is satisfied. There exists a finite impulse response (FIR) filter transfer function vector for perfect cancellation of the primary paths. The analytical result is verified numerically with an active noise control(ANC)system in a 3D rectangular enclosure. The proposed ANC scheme is shown to fit well into the framework of an existing multichannel least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm for adaptive implementation.
Community reaction to aircraft noise: Time-of-day penalty and tradeoff between levels of overflights107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429396View Description Hide Description
A decrease in the level of sound events can compensate for an increase in the level of other events, but noise metrics assume different tradeoffs. Noise metrics also differ in the penalty applied to noise in the evening and to noise in the night, and in the definition of these periods. These two aspects of noise metrics, i.e., the tradeoff and the penalty for the nighttime (23–7h), are investigated. A general model of the relation between SELs of sound events (aircraft overflights) and noise annoyance is presented which allows for a wide range of tradeoffs and time-of-day penalties. The (tradeoff and time-of-day penalty) parameters of the model are fitted to the data from an aircraft noise study conducted around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, which is especially suited for investigating the tradeoff and time-of-day penalties. It was found that in this study the tradeoff between the levels of events in metrics based on ’s, such as DNL, and DENL, is approximately correct for the prediction of noise annoyance. Furthermore, it was found that the strongest correlation with annoyance is obtained with a nighttime penalty of circa 10 dB. No suitable data were available for further tests of the tradeoff. The result with respect to the nighttime penalty was weakly further supported by the outcome of analyses of the original data from four other aircraft noise surveys (one survey conducted around British airports, and three coordinated surveys carried out around Paris Orly, Amsterdam Schiphol, and Glasgow Abbotsinch).