Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2000
Index of content:
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429332View Description Hide Description
A modelequation that describes the propagation of sound beams in a fluid is developed using the oblate spheroidal coordinate system. This spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is a parabolic equation and has a specific application to a theoretical prediction on focused, high-frequency beams from a circular aperture. The aperture angle does not have to be small. The theoretical background is basically along the same analytical lines as the composite method (CM) reported previously [B. Ystad and J. Berntsen, Acustica 82, 698–706 (1996)]. Numerical examples are displayed for the amplitudes of sound pressure along and across the beam axis when sinusoidal waves are radiated from the source with uniform amplitude distribution. The primitive approach to linear field analysis is readily extended to the case where harmonic generation in finite-amplitude sound beams becomes significant due to the inherent nonlinearity of the medium. The theory provides the propagation and beam pattern profiles that differ from the CM solution for each harmonic component.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429333View Description Hide Description
Evolution equations for propagation of both unipolar and bipolar acoustic pulses are derived by using hysteretic stress-strain relationships. Hysteretic stress-strain loops that incorporate quadratic nonlinearity are derived by applying the model of Preisach–Mayergoyz space for the characterization of structural elements in a micro-inhomogeneous material. Exact solutions of the nonlinear evolution equations predict broadening in time and reduction in amplitude of a unipolar finite-amplitude acoustic pulse. In contrast with some earlier theoretical predictions, the transformation of the pulse shape predicted here satisfies the law of “momentum” conservation (the “equality of areas” law in nonlinear acoustics of elastic materials). A bipolar pulse of nonzero momentum first transforms during its propagation into a unipolar pulse of the same duration. This process occurs in accordance with the “momentum” conservation law and without formation of shock fronts in the particle velocity profile.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429334View Description Hide Description
An earlier paper [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3412–3417 (1995)] reported on the comparison of rise times and overpressures of sonic booms calculated with a scattering center model of turbulence to measurements of sonic boom propagation through a well-characterized turbulent layer under moderately turbulent conditions. This detailed simulation used spherically symmetric scatterers to calculate the percentage of occurrence histograms of received overpressures and rise times. In this paper the calculation is extended to include distorted ellipsoidal turbules as scatterers and more accurately incorporates the meteorological data into a determination of the number of scatterers per unit volume. The scattering center calculation overpredicts the shifts in rise times for weak turbulence, and still underpredicts the shift under more turbulent conditions. This indicates that a single-scatter center-based model cannot completely describe sonic boom propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429335View Description Hide Description
In this paper new observations of a laser-generated cavitation bubble interacting with an inertial boundary are presented. Employing schlieren photography techniques and a thin film transducer placed on the surface of the boundary, the pressure stresses induced in the solid boundary and the surrounding fluid by collapsing bubbles, created very close to the solid surface, are experimentally measured. Liquid jet development, shock wave emission, and “splash” phenomena are identified. For different creation sites close to the boundary, the relevance of each of these phenomena with respect to potentially damaging pressure stresses in the boundary is speculated on.