Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 6, June 2000
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429338View Description Hide Description
This paper develops a new approach to matched-mode processing (MMP) for ocean acousticsource localization. MMP consists of decomposing far-field acoustic data measured at an array of sensors to obtain the excitations of the propagating modes, then matching these with modeled replica excitations computed for a grid of possible source locations. However, modal decomposition can be ill-posed and unstable if the sensor array does not provide an adequate spatial sampling of the acoustic field (i.e., the problem is underdetermined). For such cases, standard decomposition methods yield minimum-norm solutions that are biased towards zero. Although these methods provide a mathematical solution (i.e., a stable solution that fits the data), they may not represent the most physically meaningful solution. The new approach of regularized matched-mode processing (RMMP) carries out an independent modal decomposition prior to comparison with the replica excitations for each grid point, using the replica itself as the a priori estimate in a regularized inversion. For grid points at or near the source location, this should provide a more physically meaningful decomposition; at other points, the procedure provides a stable inversion. In this paper, RMMP is compared to standard MMP and matched-field processing for a series of realistic synthetic test cases, including a variety of noise levels and sensor array configurations, as well as the effects of environmental mismatch.
107(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429339View Description Hide Description
A time-reversing array (TRA) can retrofocus acoustic energy, in both time and space, to the original sound-source location without any environmental information. This unique capability may be degraded in time-dependent or noisy acoustic environments, or when propagation losses are prevalent. In this paper, monochromatic propagation simulations (based on the parabolic equation code, RAM) are used to predict TRA retrofocusing performance in shallow-water sound channels having characteristics similar to those measured during the recent SWARM (shallow-water acoustics in a random medium) experiment. Results for the influence of source–array range, source depth, acoustic frequency, bottom absorption,internal wave strength, and round-trip time delay are presented. For a fixed channel geometry, higher frequencies, deeper sources, and lower bottom absorption improve TRA performance and allow retrofocusing at longer ranges. In a dynamic shallow-water channel containing a random superposition of linear internal waves, the size of the retrofocus is slightly decreased and sidelobes are suppressed compared to the static channel results. These improvements last for approximately 1 to 2 min for source-array ranges near 10 km at a frequency of 500 Hz. For longer time delays, the internal waves cause significant TRA retrofocus amplitude decay, and the decay rate increases with increasing internal wave activity and acoustic frequency.