Volume 108, Issue 2, August 2000
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
108(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429583View Description Hide Description
Variability in the oceansound-speed field on time scales of a few hours and horizontal spatial scales of a few kilometers is often dominated by the random, anisotropic fluctuations caused by the internal-wave field. Results have been compiled from analytical approaches and from numerical simulations using the parabolic approximation into an efficient set of algorithms for calculating approximations to internal-wave effects on temporal and spatial coherences, coherent bandwidths, and regimes of acoustic fluctuation behavior. These approximate formulas account for the background, deterministic, sound-speed profile and the anisotropy of the internal-wave field, and they also allow for the incorporation of experimentally determined profiles of sound speed, buoyancy frequency, and sound-speed variance. The algorithms start from the geometrical-acoustics approximation, in which the field transmitted from a source can be described completely in terms of rays whose characteristics are determined by the sound speed as a function of position. Ordinary integrals along these rays provide approximations to acoustic-fluctuation quantities due to the statistical effects of internal waves, including diffraction. The results from the algorithms are compared with numerical simulations and with experimental results for long-range propagation in the deep ocean.
108(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429584View Description Hide Description
Acoustic backscatteringmeasurements and associated scatteringmodeling were recently conducted on a type of benthic shelled animal that has a spiral form of shell (Littorina littorea). Benthic and planktonic shelled animals with this shape occur on the seafloor and in the water column, respectively, and can be a significant source of acoustic scattering in the ocean. Modeling of the scatteringproperties allows reverberation predictions to be made for sonar performance predictions as well as for detection and classification of animals for biological and ecological applications. The studies involved measurements over the frequency range 24 kHz to 1 MHz and all angles of orientation in as small as 1° increments. This substantial data set is quite revealing of the physics of the acoustic scattering by these complex shelled bodies and served as a basis for the modeling. Specifically, the resonance structure of the scattering was strongly dependent upon angle of orientation and could be traced to various types of rays (e.g., subsonic Lamb waves and rays entering the opercular opening). The data are analyzed in both the frequency and time domain (compressed pulse processing) so that dominant scattering mechanisms could be identified. Given the complexity of the animal body (irregular elastic shell with discontinuities), approximate scatteringmodels are used with only the dominant scatteringproperties retained. Two models are applied to the data, both approximating the body as a deformed sphere: (1) an averaged form of the exact modal-series-based solution for the spherical shell, which is used to estimate the backscattering by a deformed shell averaged over all angles of orientation, and produces reasonably accurate predictions over all is the acoustic wave number of the surrounding water and is the equivalent spherical radius of the body), and (2) a ray-based formula which is used to estimate the scattering at fixed angle of orientation, but only for high The ray-based model is an extension of a model recently developed for the shelled zooplankton Limacina retroversa that has a shape similar to that of the Littorina littorea but swims through the water [Stanton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 236–253 (1998b)]. Applications of remote detection and classification of the seafloor and water column in the presence of shelled animals are discussed.
108(2000); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.429585View Description Hide Description
Acoustic scattering by the seafloor is sometimes influenced, if not dominated, by the presence of discrete volumetric objects such as shells. A series of measurements of target strength of a type of benthic shelled animal and associated scattering modeling have recently been completed (Stanton et al., “Acoustic scattering by benthic and planktonic shelled animals,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue). The results of that study are used herein to estimate the scattering by the seafloor with a covering of shells at high acoustic frequencies. A simple formulation is derived that expresses the area scattering strength of the seafloor in terms of the average reduced target strength or material properties of the discrete scatterers and their packing factor (where the reduced target strength is the target strength normalized by the geometric cross section of the scatterers and the averaging is done over orientation and/or a narrow range of size or frequency). The formula shows that, to first order, the backscattering at high acoustic frequencies by a layer of shells (or other discrete bodies such as rocks) depends principally upon material properties of the objects and packing factor and is independent of size and acoustic frequency. Estimates of area scattering strength using this formula and measured values of the target strength of shelled bodies from Stanton et al. (this issue) are close to or consistent with observed area scattering strengths due to shell-covered seafloors published in other papers.