Index of content:
Volume 109, Issue 2, February 2001
- PSYCHOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1342074View Description Hide Description
Two experiments examined the relationship between temporal pitch (and, more generally, rate) perception and auditory lateralization. Both used dichotic pulse trains that were filtered into the same high (3900–5400-Hz) frequency region in order to eliminate place-of-excitation cues. In experiment 1, a 1-s periodic pulse train of rate Fr was presented to one ear, and a pulse train of rate was presented to the other. In the “synchronous” condition, every other pulse in the train was simultaneous with a pulse in the opposite ear. In each trial, subjects concentrated on one of the two binaural images produced by this mixture: they matched its perceived location by adjusting the interaural level difference (ILD) of a bandpass noise, and its rate/pitch was then matched by adjusting the rate of a regular pulse train. The results showed that at low Fr (e.g., 2 Hz), subjects heard two pulse trains of rate Fr, one in the “higher rate” ear, and one in the middle of the head. At higher Fr (>25 Hz) subjects heard two pulse trains on opposite sides of the midline, with the image on the higher rate side having a higher pitch than that on the “lower rate” side. The results were compared to those in a control condition, in which the pulses in the two ears were asynchronous. This comparison revealed a duplex region at where across-ear synchrony still affected the perceived locations of the pulse trains, but did not affect their pitches. Experiment 2 used a 1.4-s 200-Hz dichotic pulse train, whose first 0.7 s contained a constant interaural time difference(ITD), after which the sign of the ITD alternated between subsequent pulses. Subjects matched the location and then the pitch of the “new” sound that started halfway through the pulse train. The matched location became more lateralized with increasing ITD, but subjects always matched a pitch near 200 Hz, even though the rate of pulses sharing the new ITD was only 100 Hz. It is concluded from both experiments that temporal pitch perception is not driven by the output of binaural mechanisms.
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1342073View Description Hide Description
The mechanism(s) determining pitch may assign less weight to portions of a sound where the frequency is changing rapidly. The present experiments explored the possible effect of this on the overall pitch of frequency-modulatedsounds.Pitch matches were obtained between an adjustable unmodulated sinusoid and a sinusoidal carrier that was frequency modulated using a highly asymmetric function with the form of a repeating U (∪∪) or inverted U (∩∩). The amplitude was constant during the 400-ms presentation time of each stimulus, except for 10-ms raised-cosine onset and offset ramps. In experiment 1, the carrier level was 50 dB SPL and the geometric mean of the instantaneous frequency of the modulated carrier, was either 0.5, 1, 2, or 8 kHz. The modulation rate was 5, 10, or 20 Hz. The overall depth (maximum to minimum) of the FM was 8% of For all carrier frequencies, the matched frequency was shifted away from the mean carrier frequency, downwards for the ∪∪ stimuli and upwards for the ∩∩ stimuli. The shift was typically slightly greater than 1% of and did not vary markedly with The effect of was small, but there was a trend for the shifts to decrease with increasing for and to increase with increasing for In experiment 2, the carrier level was reduced to 20 dB SL and matches were obtained only for Shifts in matched frequency of about 1% were still observed, but the trend for the shifts to increase with increasing no longer occurred. In experiment 3, matches were obtained for a 4-kHz carrier at 50 dB SPL. Shifts of about 1% again occurred, which did not vary markedly with The shifts in matched frequency observed in all three experiments are not predicted by models based on the amplitude- or intensity-weighted average of instantaneous frequency (EWAIF or IWAIF). The shifts (and the pitch shifts observed earlier for two-tone complexes and for stimuli with simultaneous AM and FM) are consistent with a model based on the assumption that the overall pitch of a frequency-modulatedsound is determined from a weighted average of period estimates, with the weight attached to a given estimate being inversely related to the short-term rate of change of period and directly related to a compressive function of the amplitude.
Coding of the fundamental frequency in continuous interleaved sampling processors for cochlear implants109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1340650View Description Hide Description
In this study the perception of the fundamental frequency of periodic stimuli by cochlear implant users is investigated. A widely used speech processor is the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS) processor, for which the fundamental frequency appears as temporal fluctuations in the envelopes at the output. Three experiments with four users of the LAURA (Registered trade mark of Philips Hearing Implants, now Cochlear Technology Centre Europe) cochlear implant were carried out to examine the influence of the modulation depth of these envelope fluctuations on pitch discrimination. In the first experiment, the subjects were asked to discriminate between two SAM (sinusoidally amplitude modulated) pulse trains on a single electrode channel differing in modulation frequency As expected, the results showed a decrease in the performance for smaller modulation depths. Optimal performance was reached for modulation depths between 20% and 99%, depending on subject, electrode channel, and modulation frequency. In the second experiment, the smallest noticeable difference in of synthetic vowels was measured for three algorithms that differed in the obtained modulation depth at the output: the default CIS strategy, the CIS strategy in which the fluctuations in the envelope were removed (FLAT CIS), and a third CIS strategy, which was especially designed to control and increase the depth of these fluctuations CIS). In general, performance was poorest for the FLAT CIS strategy, where changes in are only apparent as changes of the average amplitude in the channel outputs. This emphasizes the importance of temporal coding of in the speech envelope for pitch perception. No significantly better results were obtained for the CIS strategy compared to the default CIS strategy, although the latter results in envelope modulation depths at which sub-optimal scores were obtained in some cases of the first experiment. This indicates that less modulation is needed if all channels are stimulated with synchronous fluctuations. This hypothesis is confirmed in a third experiment where subjects performed significantly better in a pitch discrimination task with SAM pulse trains, if three channels were stimulated concurrently, as opposed to only one.
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1337960View Description Hide Description
Estimating detection threshold for auditory stimuli in children can be problematic because of lapses in attention and the time limits usually imposed by scheduling restrictions or fatigue. Data reported here were collected to compare the stability of threshold estimation procedures in testing children ages 6 to 11 in a three-alternative, forced-choice paradigm. Stimuli consisted of a 1-kHz tonal signal and a Gaussian noise masker, bandpass filtered between 500–2000 Hz and presented at 25-dB spectrum level. The signal was either presented for 400 ms in the presence of a continuous masker (simultaneous masking) or for 10 ms just prior to a 400-ms masker (backward masking). For each masking paradigm the 79% correct threshold was assessed via each of three procedures: 3-down, 1-up adaptive staircase (Levitt), maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and method of constant stimuli. Percent correct was measured at the end of the study for a signal 10 dB above the previously determined threshold in order to estimate the most appropriate psychometric function asymptote for fitting data collected via the method of constant stimuli. Both the MLE and Levitt procedures produced equally stable threshold estimates for both conditions and age groups. This was the case despite considerable variability in backward-masking thresholds.
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1336501View Description Hide Description
The aim of this study was to attempt to distinguish between neural adaptation and persistence (or temporal integration) as possible explanations of forward masking. Thresholds were measured for a sinusoidal signal as a function of signal duration for conditions where the delay between the masker offset and the signal offset (the offset–offset interval) was fixed. The masker was a 200-ms broadband noise, presented at a spectrum level of 40 dB (re: 20 μPa), and the signal was a 4-kHz sinusoid, gated with 2-ms ramps. The offset–offset interval was fixed at various durations between 4 and 102 ms and signal thresholds were measured for a range of signal durations at each interval. A substantial decrease in thresholds was observed with increasing duration for signal durations up to about 20 ms. At short offset–offset intervals, the amount of temporal integration exceeded that normally found in quiet. The results were simulated using models of temporal integration (the temporal-window model) and adaptation. For both models, the inclusion of a peripheral nonlinearity, similar to that observed physiologically in studies of the basilar membrane, was essential in producing a good fit to the data. Both models were about equally successful in accounting for the present data. However, the temporal-window model provided a somewhat better account of similar data from a simultaneous-masking experiment, using the same parameters. This suggests that the linear, time-invariant properties of the temporal-window approach are appropriate for modeling forward masking. Overall the results confirm that forward masking can be described in terms of peripheral nonlinearity followed by linear temporal integration at higher levels in the auditory system. However, the difference in predictions between the adaptation and integration models is relatively small, meaning that influence of adaptation cannot be ruled out.