Index of content:
Volume 109, Issue 2, February 2001
- TRANSDUCTION 
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1342002View Description Hide Description
An empirical study covering a wide range of bender transducer sizes and operating frequencies is reported. A spherical device model is shown to give good account of bender performance, including interaction effects. A set of empirical rules for scaling equivalent circuit parameters according to the device geometry is identified. An effective spherical radius, approximately half the diaphragm radius, is identified for the typical bender. The effects of pressure and drive voltage on performance are described for particular devices. Sensitivity factors for the equivalent circuit parameters to the operating conditions are determined. These are related to sensitivity factors for the coupling coefficient (Kc) and electromechanical transformer turns ratio (N). Both these parameters are shown to have similar sensitivity responses, decreasing with pressure (planar stress), and increasing with voltage (electric field). The results of high drive tests carried out at Seneca Lake are reported. Values of conventional figures of merit and close to the highest claimed for any underwater transducer, are tabled. When allowance for the operating efficiency is included in the figure of merit definitions, the bender appears to be superior to other device types.