Index of content:
Volume 109, Issue 3, March 2001
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
109(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1339826View Description Hide Description
A unified model for reverberation and submerged target scattering in a stratified medium is developed from wavetheory. The advantage of the unified approach is that it enables quantitative predictions to be made of the target-echo-to-reverberation ratio in an ocean waveguide. Analytic expressions are derived for both deterministic and stochastic scattering from the seafloor and subseafloor. Asymptotic techniques are used to derive expressions for the scattering of broadband waveforms from distant objects or surfaces. Expressions are then obtained for the scattered field after beamforming with a horizontal line array. The model is applied to problems of active detection in shallow water. Sample calculations for narrow-band signals indicate that the detection of submerged target echoes above diffuse seafloor reverberation is highly dependent upon water column and sediment stratification as well as array aperture, source, receiver, and target locations, in addition to the scattering properties of the target and seafloor. The model is also applied to determine the conditions necessary for echo returns from discrete geomorphologic features of the seafloor and subseafloor to stand prominently above diffuse seafloor reverberation. This has great relevance to the geologic clutter problem encountered by active sonar systems operating in shallow water, as well as to the remote sensing of underwater geomorphology.