Volume 110, Issue 2, August 2001
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
110(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1381025View Description Hide Description
Click-evoked and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs and SFOAEs, respectively) were studied in humans during and after postural changes. The subjects were tilted from upright to a recumbent position (head down 30 deg) and upright again. Due to the downward posture change, CEOAEs showed a phase increase (80 deg at 1 kHz) and a level decrease (0.5 at 1 kHz), especially for frequency components below 2 kHz. For SFOAEs, the typical ripple pattern showed a positive shift along the frequency axis, which can be interpreted as a phase shift of the inner-ear component of the microphone signal (90 deg at 1 kHz). This also occurred mainly for frequencies below 2 kHz. The altered posture is thought to cause an increase of the intracranial pressure, and consequently of the intracochlear fluid pressure, which results in an increased stiffness of the stapes system. The observed emission changes are in agreement with predictions from a model in which the stiffness of the cochlear windows was altered. For CEOAEs, the time to regain stability after a downward turn was of the order of 30 s, while this took about 20 s after an upward turn. For SFOAEs, this asymmetry was not found to be present (about 11 s, both for up- and downward turns).
110(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1377050View Description Hide Description
The response of chinchilla basilar membrane in the basal region of the cochlea to multicomponent (1, 3, 5, 6, or 7) stimuli was studied using a laser interferometer. Three-component stimuli were amplitude-modulated signals with modulation depths that varied from 25% to 200% and the modulation frequency varied from 100 to 2000 Hz while the carrier frequency was set to the characteristic frequency of the region under study (∼6.3 to 9 kHz). Results indicate that, for certain modulation frequencies and depths, there is enhancement of the response. Responses to five equal-amplitude sine wave stimuli indicated the occurrence of nonlinear phenomena such as spectral edge enhancement, present when the frequency spacing was less than 200 Hz, and mutual suppression. For five-component stimuli, the first, third, or fifth component was placed at the characteristic frequency and the component frequency separation was varied over a 2-kHz range. Responses to seven component stimuli were similar to those of five-component stimuli. Six-component stimuli were generated by leaving out the center component of the seven-component stimuli. In the latter case, the center component was restored in the basilar-membrane response as a result of distortion-product generation in the nonlinear cochlea.
Frequency specificity of the human auditory brainstem and middle latency responses using notched noise masking110(2001); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1385901View Description Hide Description
This study investigated the frequency specificity of the auditory brainstem and middle latency responses to 80 and 90 dB ppe SPL 500-Hz and 90 dB ppe SPL 2000-Hz tonebursts. The stimuli were brief (2-1-2 cycle) linear-gated tonebursts. ABR/MLRs were recorded using two electrode montages: (1) Cz-nape of neck and (2) Cz-ipsilateral earlobe. Cochlear contributions to ABR wave V-Na and MLR waves Na-Pa and Pa-Nb were assessed by plotting notched noise tuning curves which showed amplitudes and latencies as a function of center frequency of the noise masker [Abdala and Folsom, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 2394 (1995); ibid. 98, 921 (1995)]. Maxima in the response amplitude profiles for the ABR and MLR to 80 dB ppe SPL tonebursts occurred within one-half octave of the nominal stimulus frequency, with minimal contributions to the responses from frequencies greater than one octave away. At 90 dB ppe SPL, contributions came from a slightly broader frequency region for both stimulus frequencies. Thus, the ABR/MLR to 80 dB ppe SPL tonebursts shows good frequency specificity which decreases at 90 dB ppe SPL. No significant differences exist in frequency specificity of: (1) ABR wave V-Na versus MLR waves Na-Pa and Pa- Nb at either stimulus frequency or intensity; and (2) ABR/MLRs recorded using the two electrode montages.