Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2002
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1428265View Description Hide Description
Refracted arrival waves which propagate in the zone of silence of a finite thickness mixing layer are analyzed using geometrical acoustics in two dimensions. Here, two simplifying assumptions are made: (i) the mean flow field is transversely sheared, and (ii) the mean velocity and temperature profiles approach the free-stream conditions exponentially. Under these assumptions, ray trajectories are analytically solved, and a formula for acoustic pressure amplitude in the far field is derived in the high-frequency limit. This formula is compared with the existing theory based on a vortex sheet corresponding to the low-frequency limit. The analysis covers the dependence on the Mach number as well as on the temperature ratio. The results show that both limits have some qualitative similarities, but the amplitude in the zone of silence at high frequencies is proportional to while that at low frequencies is proportional to being the angular frequency of the source.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1430683View Description Hide Description
Various parabolic equations for advected acoustic waves have been derived based on the assumptions of small Mach number and narrow propagation angles, which are of limited validity in atmospheric acoustics. A parabolic equationsolution that does not require these assumptions is derived in the weak shear limit, which is appropriate for frequencies of about 0.1 Hz and above for atmospheric acoustics. When the variables are scaled appropriately in this limit, terms involving derivatives of the sound speed, density, and wind speed are small but can have significant cumulative effects. To obtain a solution that is valid at large distances from the source, it is necessary to account for linear terms in the first derivatives of these quantities [A. D. Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 2292–2299 (1990)]. This approach is used to obtain a scalar wave equation for advected waves. Since this equation contains two depth operators that do not commute with each other, it does not readily factor into outgoing and incoming solutions. An approximate factorization is obtained that is correct to first order in the commutator of the depth operators.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1436069View Description Hide Description
An experimental investigation into the sound-producingcharacteristics of moderately and highly underexpanded supersonic impinging jets exhausting from a round convergent nozzle is presented. The production of large plate tones by impingement on a square plate with a side dimension equal to 12 nozzle exit diameters is studied using random and phase-locked shadowgraph photography. Discrete frequency sound is produced in the near-wall region of the jet when a Mach disk occurs upstream of the standoff shock wave. Tones cease when the plate distance is approximately 2.2 free-jet cell lengths and the first and second shock waves are located in the free-jet positions. The production of impulsive sound appears to be associated with the collapse of the standoff shock wave during a portion of the oscillation cycle. Results from unsteady plate-pressure measurements indicate that plane-wave motion occurs in the impingement region and a secondary pressure maximum is observed on the plate adjacent to the flow region where sound appears to originate.