Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2002
- BIOACOUSTICS 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1436068View Description Hide Description
In a previous study [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1290 (2000)] the acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung was evaluated as a possible explanation for the enhanced lung damage with increased hydrostaticpressure, but the hydrostatic-pressure-dependent impedance difference alone could not explain the enhanced occurrence of hemorrhage. In that study, it was hypothesized that the animal’s breathing pattern might be altered as a function of hydrostaticpressure, which in turn might affect the volume of air inspired and expired. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung would be affected with altered lung inflation, thus altering the acoustic boundary conditions. In this study, 12 rats were exposed to 3 volumes of lung inflation (inflated: approximately tidal volume; half-deflated: half-tidal volume; deflated: lung volume at functional residual capacity), 6 rats at 8.6-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 3.1) and 6 rats at 16-MPa in situ peak rarefactional pressure (MI of 5.8). Respiration was chemically inhibited and a ventilator was used to control lung volume and respiratory frequency. Superthreshold ultrasound exposures of the lungs were used (3.1-MHz, 1000-Hz PRF, 1.3-μs pulse duration, 10-s exposure duration) to produce lesions. Deflated lungs were more easily damaged than half-deflated lungs, and half-deflated lungs were more easily damaged than inflated lungs. In fact, there were no lesions observed in inflated lungs in any of the rats. The acoustic impedance difference between intercostal tissue and lung is much less for the deflated lung condition, suggesting that the extent of lung damage is related to the amount of acoustic energy that is propagated across the pleural surface boundary.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1428544View Description Hide Description
Acoustic streaming may have practical utility in diagnosticmedicalultrasound in distinguishing between stagnant blood and tissue as well as clotted and unclotted blood. This distinction can be difficult with conventional ultrasound but have high value in managing trauma patients with internal hemorrhage. Ultrasoundenergy applies a force to blood by momentum transfer, resulting in bulk streaming that is a function of the acoustic attenuation,sound speed, acoustic intensity, blood viscosity, and the boundary conditions posed by the geometry around the hematoma. A simple tubular model was studied analytically, by finite element simulation, and experimentally by in vitro measurement. The simulation agreed closely with measurements while the analytic solutions were found to be valid only for beam diameters approximating the diameter of the tubular channel. Experimentally, the acoustic streaming in blood decreased as the blood began to clot and the streaming flow was not detected in clotted blood. In contrast, the echogenicity of the same blood samples did not change appreciably from the unclotted to the clotted state for the stagnant blood studied. Streaming detection appears to offer a potential tool for improving hemorrhage diagnosis.
Source levels of clicks from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris Gray 1846) recorded in Icelandic waters111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1433814View Description Hide Description
This study reports the source levels of clicks recorded from free-ranging white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris Gray 1846). A four-hydrophone array was used to obtain sound recordings. The hydrophone signals were digitized on-line and stored in a portable computer. An underwater video camera was used to visualize dolphins to help identify on-axis recordings. The range to a dolphin was calculated from differences in arrival times of clicks at the four hydrophones, allowing for calculations of source levels. Source levels in a single click train varied from 194 to 211 dB peak-to-peak (p-p) The source levels varied linearly with the log of range. The maximum source levels recorded were 219 dB (p-p)