Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 2, February 2002
- STRUCTURAL ACOUSTICS AND VIBRATION 
Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and associated enhancement of convective heat transfer111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1433811View Description Hide Description
Acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic flexural vibrations and the associated convection enhancement are investigated. Acoustic streamingpattern, streaming velocity, and associated heat transfercharacteristics are experimentally observed. Moreover, analytical analysis based on Nyborg’s formulation is performed along with computational fluid dynamics(CFD) simulation using a numerical solver CFX 4.3. Two distinctive acoustic streamingpatterns in half-wavelength of the flexural vibrations are observed, which agree well with the theory. However, acoustic streamingvelocities obtained from CFD simulation, based on the incompressible flow assumption, exceed the theoretically estimated velocity by a factor ranging from 10 to 100, depending upon the location along the beam. Both CFD simulation and analytical analysis reveal that the acoustic streamingvelocity is proportional to the square of the vibration amplitude and the wavelength of the vibrating beam that decreases with the excitation frequency. It is observed that the streaming velocity decreases with the excitation frequency. Also, with an open-ended channel, a substantial increase in streaming velocity is observed from CFD simulations. Using acoustic streaming, a temperature drop of 40 °C with a vibration amplitude of 25 μm at 28.4 kHz is experimentally achieved.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1433806View Description Hide Description
A theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear dynamic response of a periodically excited string subject to a knife-edge amplitude restraint is presented. The amplitude restraint creates an impact condition as the amplitude of the response grows. The focus of this work is on the influence of a grazing instability; this zero-velocity impact event leads to complicated, post-bifurcation behavior ranging from multifrequency, periodic motion to chaos. In addition to looking at the response numerically, parameter combinations leading to an incidence of grazing are clearly identified in the excitation force excitation frequency parameter space using a multiple scales perturbation analysis.Modeling issues, numerical difficulties, and experimental limitations are also discussed.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1428749View Description Hide Description
This paper is concerned with the scattering from a submerged (heavy fluid) bilaminate spherical shell composed of an outer layer of steel, and an inner layer of radially polarized piezoelectric material. The methodology used includes separation formulas for the stresses and displacements, which in turn are used (coupled with spherical harmonics) to reduce the governing equations to linear systems of ordinary differential equations. This technique uses the full equations of elasticity rather than any of the various thin-shell approximations in determining the axisymmetric scattering from a shell, normal modes of vibration for the shell, as well as voltages necessary for annihilation of a scattered pressure due to insonification of the shell by an incident plane wave.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1433810View Description Hide Description
When multiple actuators and sensors are used to control the vibration of a panel, or its sound radiation, they are usually positioned so that they couple into specific modes and are all connected together with a centralized control system. This paper investigates the physical effects of having a regular array of actuator and sensor pairs that are connected only by local feedback loops. An array of force actuators and velocity sensors is first simulated, for which such a decentralized controller can be shown to be unconditionally stable. Significant reductions in both the kinetic energy of the panel and in its radiated sound power can be obtained for an optimal value of feedback gain, although higher values of feedback gain can induce extra resonances in the system and degrade the performance. A more practical transducer pair, consisting of a piezoelectric actuator and velocity sensor, is also investigated and the simulations suggest that a decentralized controller with this arrangement is also stable over a wide range of feedback gains. The resulting reductions in kinetic energy and sound power are not as great as with the force actuators, due to the extra resonances being more prominent and at lower frequencies, but are still worthwhile. This suggests that an array of independent modular systems, each of which included an actuator, a sensor, and a local feedback control loop, could be a simple and robust method of controlling broadband sound transmission when integrated into a panel.