Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 4, April 2002
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1453448View Description Hide Description
Sound propagation through the gap produced by two parallel vertical barriers with overlapped ends is formulated for traffic noisesources. The analysis identifies both source and receiver regions according to the mechanisms that influence noise propagation in the vicinity of an overlap gap. A method to account for the contributions from the various source regions for a given receiver location is described. The derived method can be implemented using various equations for sound propagation. The results of using equations approved by the United States Federal Highway Administration for traffic noise propagation are given. Uncalibrated predictions are compared with field measurements for up to 30 receiver positions from each of four overlap gaps. The relative importance of contributions from reflected rays to the noise levels at receiver positions is given. The analysis confirms the initial hypothesis that a commonly used strategy of overlapping barriers by an amount equal to two or three times the overlap width is useful for controlling line-of-sight propagation but ignores the substantial effect of reflections.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1448339View Description Hide Description
A near-replication of a study of the annoyance of rattle and vibration attributable to aircraft noise [Fidell et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 1408–1415 (1999)] was conducted in the vicinity of Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP). The findings of the current study were similar to those reported earlier with respect to the types of objects cited as sources of rattle in homes, frequencies of notice of rattle, and the prevalence of annoyance due to aircraft noise-induced rattle. A reliably lower prevalence rate of annoyance (but not of complaints) with rattle and vibration was noted among respondents living in homes that had been treated to achieve a 5-dB improvement in A-weighted noise reduction than among respondents living in untreated homes. This difference is not due to any substantive increase in low-frequency noise reduction of acoustically treated homes, but may be associated with installation of nonrattling windows. Common interpretations of the prevalence of a consequential degree of annoyance attributable to low-frequency aircraft noise may be developed from the combined results of the present and prior studies.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1460926View Description Hide Description
A robust active controller using spatially feedforward structure is proposed for broadband attenuation of noise in ducts. To meet the requirements of performance and robust stability in the presence of plant uncertainties, an cost function and an constrain are employed in the synthesis of the controller. The design is then converted into a convex programming problem using Q-parametrization and frequency discretization. An optimal controller that satisfies the quadratic cost functions and linear inequality constraints can be found by sequential quadratic programming. The optimal controller was implemented via a digital signal processor (DSP) and verified by experiments. Experiment results showed that the system attained 16.5 dB maximal attenuation and 5.9 dB total attenuation in the frequency band 200–600 Hz.
Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1448314View Description Hide Description
An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. [“Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection,” Can. Acoust.21, 19–20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1459463View Description Hide Description
Two models are developed, one in the time domain and another in the frequency domain, to explain when a wheel/rail noise generation model requires the inclusion of discrete supports, parametric excitation, and the nonlinear contact spring. Numerical simulations indicate the inclusion of discrete supports to describe low frequency response, and also at higher frequencies, especially where the rail is very smooth or has a corrugation/wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With a corrugation, it may become essential to include the nonlinear contact spring, as contact loss occurs at high corrugation amplitudes. As nonlinearity causes force generation over a broad frequency range, some contributions excite wheel resonances, resulting in high radiation levels, that require the inclusion of wheel/rail nonlinear effects and parametric excitation for accurate prediction.