Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 4, April 2002
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1453452View Description Hide Description
A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057–2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1458590View Description Hide Description
A model for a moderately deep underwater explosion bubble is developed that integrates the shock wave and oscillation phases of the motion. A hyperacoustic relationship is formulated that relates bubble volume acceleration to far-field pressure profile during the shock-wave phase, thereby providing initial conditions for the subsequent oscillation phase. For the latter, equations for bubble-surface response are derived that include wave effects in both the external liquid and the internal gas. The equations are then specialized to the case of a spherical bubble, and bubble-surface displacement histories are calculated for dilational and translational motion. Agreement between these histories and experimental data is found to be substantially better than that produced by previous models.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1459466View Description Hide Description
The relative motion of two gas bubbles in an acoustic field is investigated by calculating the time-averaged interaction force known as the secondary Bjerknes force. The surrounding medium is assumed to be an incompressible viscous liquid and the separation distance between the bubbles much larger than their radii. A refined formula for the interaction force is derived, which allows for translational oscillations of the bubbles, the vorticity of the linear scattered field, and acoustic streaming. The boundary condition of slippage on the gas–liquid interface is assumed. It is shown that viscouseffects can cause small bubbles, driven well below resonance, to repel each other within a relatively wide parameter range. This result discloses a significant boundedness of the classical Bjerknes theory according to which bubbles of this sort are capable of mutual attraction alone.