Volume 111, Issue 4, April 2002
Index of content:
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1463447View Description Hide Description
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a method whereby the elastictensor of a sample is extracted from a set of measured resonance frequencies. RUS has been used successfully to determine the elastic properties of single crystals and homogeneous samples. In this paper, we study the application of RUS to macroscopic samples of mesoscopically inhomogeneous materials, specifically rock. Particular attention is paid to five issues: the scale of mesoscopic inhomogeneity, imprecision in the figure of the sample, the effects of low Q, optimizing the data sets to extract the elastictensor reliably, and sensitivity to anisotropy. Using modeling and empirical testing, we find that many of the difficulties associated with using RUS on mesoscopically inhomogeneous materials can be mitigated through the judicious choice of sample size and sample aspect ratio.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1453449View Description Hide Description
The theory for thermoacoustic mixture separation is extended to include the effects of a nonzero concentration gradient. New data are presented, which are in excellent agreement with this theory. The maximum concentration gradient which may be achieved in a binary mixture of gases through this separation process is intrinsically limited by the fractional pressure amplitude, by the tidal displacement, and by the size of the thermal diffusion ratio. Ordinary diffusion further detracts from the attainable final concentration gradient and can become the dominant remixing process as the cross section of the duct is increased. Rayleigh streaming also works against thermoacoustic separation, and an estimate of the molar flux from streaming is given.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1462640View Description Hide Description
Detection and characterization of defects in metal parts in industrial and commercial settings has typically been carried out by nondestructive ultrasonic inspection systems. Correct measurement of crack size is critical for lifetime prediction inspections. Normally, measurements are made based on far-field ultrasonic diffraction models and time-of-flight reflection signals making accurate measurements for parts less than approximately 25 mm in thickness impossible. In this work a hybrid noncontacting laser generation/broadband electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) detection system is used to characterize ideal cracks in aluminum in which the far-field condition for ultrasonic diffraction cannot be met. Time domain signals show that diffracted energy is measured in the geometrical shadow zone of the crack. Fourier transform methods are used to show that the frequency content of the diffracted signals is different than those from the waves that do not interact with the crack. Crack size measurements are made by using the frequency content of the ultrasonic signal rather than time-of-flight information.