Index of content:
Volume 111, Issue 4, April 2002
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1448316View Description Hide Description
This paper presents the application of the differential equation approach to solving the second-order coupled-mode equations in inhomogeneous ocean environments. The model incorporates sound velocity profile points to construct depth-dependent, piecewise linear, ocean and bottom environments along a range grid. Modal solutions are evaluated in terms of Airy functions. The formalism to evaluate analytically the mode-coupling coefficients is presented. Comparisons to conventional expressions of the coefficients are made. The integro-differential form of the coupled equations is solved using an approach developed in nuclear theory that incorporates the Lanczos method [Knobles, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1741–1747 (1994)]. Demonstration of the practicality of this approach is made by applying the results in actual calculations with realistic ocean environments. The formalism to evaluate analytically the mode-coupling coefficients is presented. Several benchmark examples were examined in order to validate the model and are discussed, including propagation over a hill, benchmark wedge problems, and a range-varying sound speed profile benchmark. The importance of this model is also demonstrated by the physical insight gained in having a coupled-mode approach to solving range-dependent problems.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1458939View Description Hide Description
To establish the validity of the boundary-element method(BEM) for modeling scattering by swimbladder-bearing fish, the BEM is exercised in several ways. In a computation of backscattering by a 50-mm-diam spherical void in sea water at the four frequencies 38.1, 49.6, 68.4, and 120.4 kHz, agreement with the analytical solution is excellent. In computations of target strength as a function of tilt angle for each of 15 surface-adapted gadoids for which the swimbladders were earlier mapped, BEM results are in close agreement with Kirchhoff-approximation-model results at each of the same four frequencies. When averaged with respect to various tilt angle distributions and combined by regression analysis, the two models yield similar results. Comparisons with corresponding values derived from measured target strength functions of the same 15 gadoid specimens are fair, especially for the tilt angle distribution with the greatest standard deviation, namely 16°.
111(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1461837View Description Hide Description
The 1995 Shallow Water Acoustics in a Random Medium (SWARM) experiment [Apel et al., IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997)] was conducted off the New Jersey coast. The experiment featured two well-populated vertical receiving arrays, which permitted the measured acoustic field to be decomposed into its normal modes. The decomposition was repeated for successive transmissions allowing the amplitude of each mode to be tracked. The modal amplitudes were observed to decorrelate with time scales on the order of 100 s [Headrick et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1), 201–220 (2000)]. In the present work, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the observed decorrelation. Packets of intense internal waves are modeled as coherent structures moving along the acoustic propagation path without changing shape. The packets cause mode coupling and their motion results in a changing acoustic interference pattern. The model is consistent with the rapid decorrelation observed in SWARM. The model also predicts the observed partial recorrelation of the field at longer time scales. The model is first tested in simple continuous-wave simulations using canonical representations for the internal waves. More detailed time-domain simulations are presented mimicking the situation in SWARM. Modeling results are compared to experimental data.