Index of content:
Volume 112, Issue 5, November 2002
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Underwater audiogram of a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) measured with narrow-band frequency-modulated signals112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1508783View Description Hide Description
The underwater hearing sensitivity of an 18-year-old male Pacific walrus was measured in a pool by using a go/no-go response paradigm and the up-down staircase method. Auditory sensitivity was measured using narrow-band, frequency-modulated signals (1500 ms duration) with center frequencies ranging from 0.125 to 15 kHz. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for this individual walrus shows the typical mammalian U-shape. Maximum sensitivity (67 dB re 1 μPa) occurred at 12 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 12 kHz. Sensitivity fell gradually below 1 kHz and dropped off sharply above 12 kHz. The animal showed a peculiar insensitivity for 2 kHz signals. His much higher sensitivity for 1.5- and 3-kHz signals indicated that this is a narrow-band phenomenon. Walrus hearing is relatively sensitive to low frequency sound, thus the species is likely to be susceptible to anthropogenic noise. The thresholds found during a small test with four frequencies with signal durations of 300 ms did not differ significantly from those obtained with signal durations of 1500 ms.
112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1509428View Description Hide Description
High-speed photography of insonified bubbles with a time resolution of 10 ns allows observations of translation due to radiation force, in addition to the visualization of radial oscillations. A modified version of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is used to estimate the radius–time behavior of insonified microbubbles, and the accuracy of this model is verified experimentally. The translation of insonified microbubbles is calculated using a differential equation relating the acceleration of the bubble to the forces due to acoustic radiation and the drag imposed by the fluid. Simulations and experiments indicate that microbubbles translate significant distances with clinically relevant parameters. A 1.5 micron radius contrast agent can translate over 5 microns during a single 20-cycle, 2.25 MHz, 380 kPa acoustic pulse, achieving velocities over 0.5 m/s. Therefore, radiation force should be considered during an ultrasonic examination because of the possibility of influencing the position and flow velocity of the contrast agents with the interrogating acoustic beam.