Volume 112, Issue 5, November 2002
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
Approximating the head-related transfer function using simple geometric models of the head and torso112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1508780View Description Hide Description
The head-related transfer function (HRTF) for distant sources is a complicated function of azimuth, elevation and frequency. This paper presents simple geometric models of the head and torso that provide insight into its low-frequency behavior, especially at low elevations. The head-and-torso models are obtained by adding both spherical and ellipsoidal models of the torso to a classical spherical-head model. Two different numerical techniques—multipole reexpansion and boundary element methods—are used to compute the HRTF of the models in both the frequency domain and the time domain. These computed HRTFs quantify the characteristics of elevation-dependent torso reflections for sources above the torso-shadow cone, and reveal the qualitatively different effects of torso shadow for sources within the torso-shadow cone. These effects include a torso bright spot that is prominent for the spherical torso, and significant attenuation of frequencies above 1 kHz in a range of elevations. Both torso reflections and torso shadow provide potentially significant elevation cues. Comparisons of the model HRTF with acoustic measurements in the horizontal, median, and frontal planes confirm the basic validity of the computational methods and establish that the geometric models provide good approximations of the HRTF for the KEMAR mannequin with its pinnae removed.
Optimizing the acquisition time of the middle latency response using maximum length sequences and chirps112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1508791View Description Hide Description
The middle latency response (MLR) may be used as an indicator of anesthetic depth but has been criticized due to its long acquisition time. This study explores methods for optimizing recording of the MLR to maximize signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence reduce acquisition time. The first experiment investigates the effects of increasing stimulation rate beyond conventional values and also using higher rates by means of maximum length sequences (MLS). The second experiment compares the use of click and chirp stimuli to elicit the MLR, both at conventional and MLS stimulation rates. For all conditions total recording duration is fixed at 185 s and stimulation level is fixed at 60 dB SL. It was found that SNR increases progressively with rate using conventional click stimulation until the theoretical rate limit is reached at the reciprocal of the response duration. The SNR improvement is equivalent to increasing test speed by a factor of 3. Using MLS stimulation, the SNR increases further until a maximum is reached at a rate of 167 clicks/s, equivalent to a fivefold test speed improvement relative to a conventional recording at 5 clicks/s. The use of chirp stimuli designed to compensate for the frequency dependent cochlear traveling wave delay produces an increase in wave V–Na amplitude at all recording rates. For the later latency waves of the response an increase in amplitude is seen for MLS, but not for conventional chirp trains. The optimum SNR was obtained using chirp stimuli at a MLS rate of 167 opportunities/s. It is concluded that the combination of chirps and MLS can reduce acquisition time to less than one-tenth of that required for conventional stimulation at 5 clicks/s for the same SNR. This would confer material benefits for estimating anesthetic depth using MLR.