Volume 112, Issue 5, November 2002
Index of content:
- SPEECH PRODUCTION 
112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1509430View Description Hide Description
The contribution of turbulent noise was modeled in symmetric vocal folds. A two-mass model was used to simulate irregular vocal fold vibrations. The threshold values of system parameters to produce irregular vibrations were decreased as a result of turbulent airflow. Periodic vibrations were then driven into the regions of irregular vibrations. Using nonlinear dynamics including Poincaré map and Lyapunov exponents, irregular vibrations were demonstrated as chaos. For the deterministic vocal-fold model with noise free and steady airflow, a fine period-doubling bifurcation cascade was shown in a bifurcation diagram. However, turbulent noise added to the vocal-fold model would induce chaotic vibrations, broaden the regions of irregular vocal fold vibrations, and inhibit the fine period-doubling bifurcations in the bifurcation diagrams. The perturbations from neurological and biomechanicaleffects were simulated as a random variation of the vocal fold stiffness. Turbulent noise as an external random source, as well as random stiffness perturbation as an internal random source, played important roles in the presence of irregular vocal fold vibrations.
Computational aeroacoustics of phonation, Part I: Computational methods and sound generation mechanisms112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1506693View Description Hide Description
The aerodynamicgeneration of sound during phonation was studied using direct numerical simulations of the airflow and the sound field in a rigid pipe with a modulated orifice. Forced oscillations with an imposed wall motion were considered, neglecting fluid–structure interactions. The compressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric form of the Navier–Stokes equations were numerically integrated using highly accurate finite difference methods. A moving grid was used to model the effects of the moving walls. The geometry and flow conditions were selected to approximate the flow within an idealized human glottis and vocal tract during phonation. Direct simulations of the flow and farfield sound were performed for several wall motion programs, and flow conditions. An acoustic analogy based on the Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings equation was then used to decompose the acoustic source into its monopole, dipole, and quadrupole contributions for analysis. The predictions of the farfield acoustic pressure using the acoustic analogy were in excellent agreement with results from the direct numerical simulations. It was found that the dominant sound production mechanism was a dipole induced by the net force exerted by the surfaces of the glottis walls on the fluid along the direction of sound wave propagation. A monopole mechanism, specifically sound from the volume of fluid displaced by the wall motion, was found to be comparatively weak at the frequency considered (125 Hz). The orifice geometry was found to have only a weak influence on the amplitude of the radiated sound.
112(2002); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1506694View Description Hide Description
The results are described of the second part of an ongoing study aimed at performing direct numerical simulations of translaryngeal flows during phonation. The use of accurate numerical schemes allows the radiated sound to be calculated directly, without the need for acoustic analogymodels. The goal is to develop a better understanding of this class of flow, and of the basic sound generation mechanisms involved in phonation. In the present study, the effects of subglottal pressure and of glottal oscillation frequency on the near-field flow and farfield sound were investigated. The effects of the presence of the ventricular folds downstream of the oscillating glottal region were also examined. The results highlighted the effects of subglottal pressure and oscillation frequency on the jet vortical structure, wall pressure and shear stress, and sound radiation. Jet impingement on the ventricular folds introduced additional dipole sources similar to those observed in problems involving grazing flows over cavities.