Volume 113, Issue 1, January 2003
Index of content:
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1526490View Description Hide Description
The concept of cancellation of constant-frequency sound radiated from a vibrating surface by means of an attached mechanical oscillator is discussed. It is observed that the mass of a mechanical oscillator whose spring is attached to the vibrating surface will vibrate at comparatively large amplitudes and out of phase with that surface, provided that the surface vibrates at a frequency that is slightly higher than the oscillator’s natural frequency. From this observation it is concluded that an oscillator’s mass with a relatively small surface area can produce a volume velocity that is equal and opposite to that of the vibrating surface, resulting in cancellation of the sound radiated from the surface. Practical considerations in the design of such an oscillator are discussed, and the canceling performance from oscillators consisting of edge-supported circular disks is analyzed. An experimental canceling oscillator consisting of an edge-supported disk is described, and measurements made with this disk attached to a piston are shown to be in good agreement with analytical predictions. A tonal noise reduction exceeding 20 dB was demonstrated experimentally.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1529665View Description Hide Description
In some situations of active noise control, infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are more suitable than finite impulse response (FIR) filters owing to the poles in the transfer function. A number of algorithms have been derived for applying IIR filters in active noise control; however, most of them use the direct form IIR filter structure, which faces the difficulties of checking stability and relatively slow convergence speed for noise composed of narrow-band components with large power disparity. To overcome these difficulties along with using the direct form IIR filters, a new adaptive algorithm is proposed in this paper, which uses and updates the lattice form adaptive IIR filter in an active noise control system. Full mathematical derivations of the proposed algorithm are presented, and the comparison between the proposed algorithm and the commonly used filtered-u LMS and filtered-v LMS algorithms shows the superiority of the proposed algorithm.
A- and C-weighted sound levels as predictors of the annoyance caused by shooting sounds, for various façade attenuation types113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1527957View Description Hide Description
In a previous study on the annoyance caused by a great variety of shooting sounds [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 244–253 (2001)], it was shown that the annoyance, as rated indoors with the windows closed, could be adequately predicted from the outdoor A-weighted and C-weighted sound-exposure levels [ASEL and CSEL of the impulse sounds. The explained variance in the mean ratings by (outdoor) ASEL was significantly increased by adding the product as a second variable. In the present study it was investigated to which extent the additional contribution of the second predictor is also relevant for façade attenuation types with lower and higher degrees of sound isolation than applied previously. Twenty subjects rated the indoor annoyance caused by 11 different impulse types produced by firearms ranging in caliber from 7.62 to 155 mm, at various levels and for five façade attenuation conditions. The effect of façade attenuation on the ratings was large and consistent. In all conditions, an optimal prediction of the annoyance was obtained with outdoor ASEL as the first, and as the second predictor. The benefit of the second predictor, expressed as the increase in the explained variance, ranged from 2.5 to 55 percent points, and strongly increased with the degree of façade attenuation. It was concluded that for the determination of the rating sound level, the acoustic parameters ASEL and CSEL are very powerful. In addition, the results showed that for the whole set of impulses included, the annoyance could also be predicted very well by the weighted sum of indoor ASEL and the product