Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 1, January 2003
- TRANSDUCTION 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1527928View Description Hide Description
In this paper the correction of the degradation of the stereophonic illusion during sound reproduction due to off-center listening is investigated. The main idea is that the directivity pattern of a loudspeaker array should have a well-defined shape such that a good stereo reproduction is achieved in a large listening area. Therefore, a mathematical description to derive an optimal directivity pattern that achieves sweet spot widening in a large listening area for stereophonic sound applications is described. This optimal directivity pattern is based on parametrized time/intensity trading data coming from psycho-acoustic experiments within a wide listening area. After the study, the required digital FIR filters are determined by means of a least-squares optimization method for a given stereo base setup (two pair of drivers for the loudspeaker arrays and 2.5-m distance between loudspeakers), which radiate sound in a broad range of listening positions in accordance with the derived Informal listening tests have shown that the worked as predicted by the theoretical simulations. They also demonstrated the correct central sound localization for speech and music for a number of listening positions. This application is referred to as “Position-Independent (PI) stereo.”
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1527958View Description Hide Description
Recently, a linear, analytical distributed model for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) was presented, and an electromechanical equivalent circuit based on the theory reported was used to describe the behavior of the transducer [IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49, 159–168 (2002)]. The distributed model is applied here to calculate the dynamic coupling factor of a lossless CMUT, based on a definition that involves the energies stored in a dynamic vibration cycle, and the results are compared with those obtained with a lumped model. A strong discrepancy is found between the two models as the bias voltage increases. The lumped model predicts an increasing dynamic k factor up to unity, whereas the distributed model predicts a more realistic saturation of this parameter to values substantially lower. It is demonstrated that the maximum value of corresponding to an operating point close to the diaphragm collapse, is 0.4 for a CMUT single cell with a circular membrane diaphragm and no parasitic capacitance (0.36 for a cell with a circular plate diaphragm). This means that the dynamic coupling factor of a CMUT is comparable to that of a piezoceramic plate oscillating in the thickness mode. Parasitic capacitance decreases the value of because it does not contribute to the energy conversion. The effective coupling factor is also investigated, showing that this parameter coincides with within the lumped model approximation, but a quite different result is obtained if a computation is made with the more accurate distributed model. As a consequence, which can be measured from the transducerelectrical impedance, does not give a reliable value of the actual dynamic coupling factor.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1527960View Description Hide Description
The need for noisesource localization and characterization has driven the development of advanced sound fieldmeasurement techniques using microphone arrays. Unfortunately, the cost and complexity of these systems currently limit their widespread use. Directional acoustic arrays are commonly used in wind tunnel studies of aeroacoustic sources and may consist of hundreds of condenser microphones. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based directional acoustic array system is presented to demonstrate key technologies to reduce the cost, increase the mobility, and improve the data processing efficiency versus conventional systems. The system uses 16 hybrid-packaged MEMSsiliconpiezoresistivemicrophones that are mounted to a printed circuit board. In addition, a high-speed signal processing system was employed to generate the array response in near real time. Dynamic calibrations of the microphone sensor modules indicate an average sensitivity of 831 μV/Pa with matched magnitude (±0.6 dB) and phase (±1°) responses between devices. The array system was characterized in an anechoic chamber using a monopole source as a function of frequency, sound pressure level, and source location. The performance of the MEMS-based array is comparable to conventional array systems and also benefits from significant cost savings.