Volume 113, Issue 1, January 2003
Index of content:
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1523082View Description Hide Description
In this paper the complex-image approximation to the reflection coefficient for water over a seabed half-space is used to generate an image representation for a bounded acoustic waveguide with an underlying layered seabed. The images are true point sources; they have constant amplitudes which are raypath independent and, in the case of a Pekeris waveguide, frequency-independent. This image representation is ideal for constructing the Green’s function kernel of the boundary integralequation method for target scattering in a waveguide. The singular behavior of the Green’s function for an infinitesimal source/receiver separation, possibly with the target adjacent to one of the interfaces, is modeled correctly and the image expansion has a simple analytic form which can be analytically differentiated. The method is also accurate for significant source/receiver separations, which means that it can be used in the modeling of scattering from large-sized objects and can also be used as an efficient and accurate short-range propagation model for harmonic and broadband propagation in a penetrable waveguide.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1521930View Description Hide Description
Part of an experiment to test a measurement package in a shallow water region in the Gulf of Mexico was designed to gather broadband acoustic data suitable for inversion to estimate seabed geoacoustic parameters. Continuous wave tow acoustic signals at multiple frequencies and broadband impulsive source signals were recorded on a horizontal line array in a high-noise environment. Simulated annealing with a normal mode forward propagation model is utilized to invert for a geoacoustic representation of the seabed. Several inversions are made from different data samples of two light bulb implosions, the measuredsound speed profiles at the HLA and at the positions of the light bulb deployments, and for two different cost functions. The different cost functions, measuredsound speed profiles, and measuredtime series result in different inverted geoacoustic profiles from which transmission loss is generated for comparison with measurements. On the basis of physical consistency and from the comparison of the transmission loss and time series, a best estimate geoacoustic profile is selected and compared to those obtained from previously reported inversions. Uncertainties in the sound speed profile are shown to affect the uncertainties of the estimated seabed parameters.
Spectral and modal formulations for the Doppler-shifted field scattered by an object moving in a stratified medium113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1499135View Description Hide Description
Spectral and normal mode formulations for the three-dimensional field scattered by an object moving in a stratified medium are derived using full-field wavetheory. The derivations are based on Green’s theorem for the time-domain scalar wave equation and account for Doppler effects induced by target motion as well as source and receiver motion. The formulations are valid when multiple scattering between the object and waveguide boundaries can be neglected, and the scattered field can be expressed as a linear function of the object’s plane wavescattering function. The advantage of the spectral formulation is that it incorporates the entire wave number spectrum, including evanescent waves, and therefore can potentially be used at much closer ranges to the target than the modal formulation. The normal mode formulation is more computationally efficient but is limited to longer ranges. For a monochromatic source that excites N incident modes in the waveguide, there will be roughly distinct harmonic components in the scattered field. The Doppler shifts in the scattered field are highly dependent upon the waveguide environment, target shape, and measurement geometry. The Doppler effects are illustrated through a number of canonical examples.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1528929View Description Hide Description
Large aperture horizontal line arrays have small resolution cells and can be used to separate a target signal from an interference signal by array beamforming. High-resolution adaptive array processing can be used to place a null at the interference signal so that the array gain can be much higher than that of conventional beamforming. But these nice features are significantly degraded by the source motion, which reduces the time period under which the environment can be considered stationary from the array processing point of view. For adaptive array processing, a large number of data samples are generally required to minimize the variance of the cross-spectral density, or the covariance matrix, between the array elements. For a moving source and interference, the penalty of integrating over a large number of samples is the spread of signal and interference energy to more than one or two eigenvalues. The signal and interference are no longer clearly identified by the eigenvectors and, consequently, the ability to suppress the interference suffers. We show in this paper that the effect of source motion can be compensated for the (signal) beam covariance matrix, thus allowing integration over a large number of data samples without loss in the signal beam power. We employ an equivalent of a rotating coordinate frame to track the signal bearing change and use the waveguide invariant theory to compensate the signal range change by frequency shifting.