Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 2, February 2003
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
A mixed finite element method for acoustic wave propagation in moving fluids based on an Eulerian–Lagrangian description113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1534837View Description Hide Description
A nonstandard wave equation, established by Galbrun in 1931, is used to study sound propagation in nonuniform flows. Galbrun’s equation describes exactly the same physical phenomenon as the linearized Euler’s equations (LEE) but is derived from an Eulerian–Lagrangian description and written only in term of the Lagrangian perturbation of the displacement. This equation has interesting properties and may be a good alternative to the LEE: only acoustic displacement is involved (even in nonhomentropic cases), it provides exact expressions of acoustic intensity and energy, and boundary conditions are easily expressed because acoustic displacement whose normal component is continuous appears explicitly. In this paper, Galbrun’s equation is solved using a finite element method in the axisymmetric case. With standard finite elements, the direct displacement-based variational formulation gives some corrupted results. Instead, a mixed finite element satisfying the inf-sup condition is proposed to avoid this problem. A first set of results is compared with semianalytical solutions for a straight duct containing a sheared flow (obtained from Pridmore–Brown’s equation). A second set of results concerns a more complex duct geometry with a potential flow and is compared to results obtained from a multiple-scale method (which is an adaptation for the incompressible case of Rienstra’s recent work).
Measurement of surface wave transmission coefficient across surface-breaking cracks and notches in concrete113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1537709View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a technique for measuring a surface wavetransmission coefficient across surface-breaking cracks and notches in a heterogeneous but globally isotropic material (concrete) is presented. Once the transmission coefficient across a surface discontinuity is known, its depth may be estimated. There are many difficulties in measuring the transmission coefficient experimentally owing to effects of wave path dependence, unknown characteristics of the receiver and the wave source, and the variation of impact event or receiver coupling. To eliminate the undesired effects, a self-calibrating measurement scheme is applied to obtain the surface wavetransmission coefficient across notches and surface-breaking cracks in concrete. The obtained signal transmission coefficient is not affected by the experimental setup or the heterogeneous nature of the material. The testing scheme is described and experimental results obtained from concrete specimens with notches and surface-breaking cracks are presented. Repeatable and reliable measurements of surface wavetransmission coefficient are obtained, which demonstrate a strong relation to normalized discontinuity depth. A numerical study using the boundary element method is presented, which verifies the experimental findings.
Numerical investigation and electro-acoustic modeling of measurement methods for the in-duct acoustical source parameters113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1504850View Description Hide Description
It is known that the direct method yields different results from the indirect (or load) method in measuring the in-duct acoustic source parameters of fluid machines. The load method usually comes up with a negative source resistance, although a fairly accurate prediction of radiated noise can be obtained from any method. This study is focused on the effect of the time-varying nature of fluid machines on the output results of two typical measurement methods. For this purpose, a simplified fluid machine consisting of a reservoir, a valve, and an exhaust pipe is considered as representing a typical periodic, time-varying system and the measurement situations are simulated by using the method of characteristics. The equivalent circuits for such simulations are also analyzed by considering the system as having a linear time-varying source. It is found that the results from the load method are quite sensitive to the change of cylinder pressure or valve profile, in contrast to those from the direct method. In the load method, the source admittance turns out to be predominantly dependent on the valve admittance at the calculation frequency as well as the valve and load admittances at other frequencies. In the direct method, however, the source resistance is always positive and the source admittance depends mainly upon the zeroth order of valve admittance.
Energy radiated by a point acoustic dipole that reverses its uniform velocity along its rectilinear path113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1532031View Description Hide Description
This work extends a mathematical approach developed recently for monopoles to describe the sound energy radiated by a rectilinearly moving dipole that changes direction along its trajectory. Although the dipole travels with constant speed, it undergoes acceleration by reversing its direction during a finite time interval along its path. This work determines the joint angular and frequency distribution of the radiated energy, its angular distribution, and the total radiated energy output. Results for the radiated energy are systematized by expressing the radiation integrals in terms of hypergeometric functions. This procedure simplifies the evaluations, particularly at low Mach numbers, and permits the comparison of results to the earlier monopole case.