Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 2, February 2003
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1534101View Description Hide Description
Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamiceffects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1534605View Description Hide Description
A physical model based on the sound production mechanism of the sho is proposed with intention of applying it to sound synthesis. Time-domain simulation was done using this model, and effects of the tube length and blowing pressure on the sounding frequency and sounds spectra were investigated. The reed vibration, pressure variation inside the tube, and threshold blowing pressure for oscillation were measured by artificially blowing air into the sho. The experimental results are in acceptable agreement with simulation results in terms of the relationships between tube length and threshold pressure and between tube length and the sounding frequency. In addition, recorded sound waveforms and simulated ones have a common feature in the sense that high-frequency components of their spectra increase with increasing blowing pressure. Further, it is concluded that a sho reed acts as an “outward-striking valve.”
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1536632View Description Hide Description
The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians’ superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.