Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 3, March 2003
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1538199View Description Hide Description
Violin corpus wall compliance, which has a substantial effect on cavity mode frequencies, was added to Shaw’s two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) network model for A0 (“main air”) and A1 (lowest length mode included in “main wood”) cavity modes. The 2DOF model predicts a volume dependence for A0 for rigid violin-shaped cavities, to which a semiempirical compliance correction term, (optimization parameter consistent with cavity acoustical compliance and violin-based scaling was added. Optimizing over A0 and A1 frequencies measured for a Hutchins–Schelleng violin octet yielded This markedly improved A0 and A1 frequency predictions to within approximately ±10% of experiment over a range of about 4.5:1 in length, 10:1 in f-hole area, 3:1 in top plate thickness, and 128:1 in volume. Compliance is a plausible explanation for A1 falling close to the “main wood” resonance, not increasingly higher for the larger instruments, which were scaled successively shorter compared to the violin for ergonomic and practical reasons. Similarly incorporating compliance for A2 and A4 (lowest lower-/upper-bout modes, respectively) improves frequency predictions within ±20% over the octet.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1543929View Description Hide Description
Flue instruments such as the recorder flute and the transverse flute have different mouth geometries and acoustical response. The effect of the mouth geometry is studied by considering the aeroacoustical response of a simple whistle. The labium of a transverse flute has a large edge angle (60°) compared to that of a recorder flute (15°). Furthermore, the ratio of the mouth width W to the jet thickness h can be varied in the transverse flute (lips of the musician) while it is fixed to a value in a recorder flute. A systematic experimental study of the steady oscillation behavior has been carried out. Results of acoustical pressure measurements and flow visualization are presented. The sharp edge of the recorder provides a sound source which is rich in harmonics at the cost of stability. The larger angle of the labium of the flute seems to be motivated by a better stability of the oscillations for thick jets but could also be motivated by a reduction of broadband turbulencenoise. We propose two simplified sound source models which could be used for sound synthesis: a jet-drive model for and a discrete-vortex model for
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1543586View Description Hide Description
Vibrational modes of 24 clarinet reeds have been observed in both dry and wet conditions using holographic interferometry. Results have been compared with the “musical quality” of the reeds as judged by two professional clarinet players. An excellent correspondence has been demonstrated between specific vibrational behavior and musical quality. The results suggest that the presence and symmetry of a strong first torsional mode are indicative of good or very good musical quality. A second, but less stringent quality criterion is the proximity of frequencies corresponding to the second torsional and the second flexural mode. This proximity leads to the creation of mixed vibrational modes for the very best of the investigated clarinet reeds.