Volume 113, Issue 3, March 2003
Index of content:
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
On the significance of reflection coefficients produced by active surfaces bounding one-dimensional sound fields113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1550924View Description Hide Description
Active boundary surfaces intended to control reverberation or other characteristics of enclosed sound fields have often been investigated using plane wave tubes. This paper presents an analysis of actively terminated semi-infinite and finite-length plane wave tubes to provide needed clarification of the effects of these surfaces. By considering relationships between complex pressure-amplitude reflection coefficients and acoustic energy quantities, the investigation reveals that increases in reflection coefficient moduli at terminations do not always produce corresponding increases in total energy or energy flux in adjacent fields. These relationships are shown to depend upon physical properties of the acoustic spaces, sources, and source positions. The investigation also demonstrates how the impact of reflection coefficients with moduli exceeding unity may be easily misinterpreted.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1538197View Description Hide Description
In this paper, a new control system in which the acoustic impedance of an electro-acoustic transducer diaphragm can be actively varied by modifying design parameters is presented and its effectiveness is theoretically investigated. The proposed control system is based on a state-space description of the control system derived from an electrical equivalent circuit of an electro-acoustic transducer to which a differentiating circuit is connected, and is designed using modern control theory. The optimal quadratic regulator is used in the control system design, with its quadratic performance index formulated for producing desired acoustic impedance.Computer simulations indicate that the acoustic impedance of the diaphragm can be significantly varied over a wide frequency range that includes the range below the resonance frequency of the electro-acoustic transducer. A computermodel of the proposed control system is used to illustrate its application to semi-active noise control in a duct. It is demonstrated that the proposed control system provides substantial reductions in the noise radiating from the outlet of the duct, both in the stiffness control range and in the mass control range.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1547437View Description Hide Description
This article integrates findings from the literature and new results regarding noise sensitivity. The new results are based on analyses of 28 combined datasets and separate analyses of a large aircraft noise study Three topics regarding noise sensitivity are discussed, namely, its relationship with noise exposure, its working mechanism, and the scope of its influence. (1) A previous review found that noise sensitivity has no relationship with noise exposure. The current analyses give consistent results, and show that there is at most a very weak positive relationship. (2) It was observed earlier that noise sensitivity alters the effect of noise exposure on noise annoyance, and does not (only) have an additive effect. The current analyses confirm this, and show that the relation of the annoyance score with the noise exposure is relatively flat for nonsensitives while it is steeper for sensitives. (3) Previous studies showed that noise sensitivity also influences reactions other than noise annoyance. The current analyses of the aircraft noise study extend these results, but also indicate that noise sensitivity has relatively little influence on reactions to nonenvironmental conditions.