Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 3, March 2003
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1529170View Description Hide Description
Spectral evolution equations are used to perform numerical studies of nonlinear surface acoustic waves in the (111) plane of several nonpiezoelectric cubic crystals. Nonlinearity matrix elements which describe the coupling of harmonic interactions are used to characterize velocity waveform distortion. In contrast to isotropic solids and the (001) plane of cubic crystals, the nonlinearity matrix elements usually cannot be written in a real-valued form. As a result, the harmonic components are not necessarily in phase, and dramatic variations in waveforms and propagation curves can be observed. Simulations are performed for initially monofrequency surface waves. In some directions the waveforms distort in a manner similar to nonlinear Rayleigh waves, while in other directions the velocity waveforms distort asymmetrically and the formation of shocks and cusped peaks is less distinct. In some cases, oscillations occur near the shocks and peaks because of phase differences between harmonics. A mathematical transformation based on the phase of the matrix elements is shown to provide a reasonable approximation of asymmetric waveform distortion in cases where the matrix elements have similar phase.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1539519View Description Hide Description
Due to the large compressibility of gas bubbles, layers of a bubbly liquid surrounded by pure liquid exhibit many resonances that can give rise to a strongly nonlinear behavior even for relatively low-level excitation. In an earlier paper [Druzhinin et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3570 (1996)] it was pointed out that, by exciting the bubbly layer in correspondence of two resonant modes, so chosen that the difference frequency also corresponds to a resonant mode, it might be possible to achieve an efficient parametric generation of a low-frequency signal. The earlier work made use of a simplified model for the bubbly liquid that ignored the dissipation and dispersion introduced by the bubbles. Here a more realistic description of the bubble behavior is used to study the nonlinear oscillations of a bubble layer under both single- and dual-frequency excitation. It is found that a difference-frequency power of the order of 1% can be generated with incident pressure amplitudes of the order of 50 kPa or so. It appears that similar phenomena would occur in other systems, such as porous waterlike or rubberlike media.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1543588View Description Hide Description
Thermoacoustic-Stirling hybrid engines and feedback pulse tube refrigerators can utilize jet pumps to suppress streaming that would otherwise cause large heat leaks and reduced efficiency. It is desirable to use jet pumps to suppress streaming because they do not introduce moving parts such as bellows or membranes. In most cases, this form of streaming suppression works reliably. However, in some cases, the streaming suppression has been found to be unstable. Using a simple model of the acoustics in the regenerators and jet pumps of these devices, a stability criterion is derived that predicts when jet pumps can reliably suppress streaming.
Study of critical behavior in concrete during curing by application of dynamic linear and nonlinear means113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1543927View Description Hide Description
The monitoring of both linear and nonlinear elastic properties of a high performance concrete during curing is presented by application of compressional and shear waves. To follow the linear elastic behavior, both compressional and shear waves are used in wide band pulse echo mode. Through the value of the complex reflection coefficient between the cell material (Lucite) and the concrete within the cell, the elastic moduli are calculated. Simultaneously, the transmission of a continuous compressional sine wave at progressively increasing drive levels permits us to calculate the nonlinear properties by extracting the harmonics amplitudes of the signal. Information regarding the chemical evolution of the concrete based upon the reaction of hydration of cement is obtained by monitoring the temperature inside the sample. These different types of measurements are linked together to interpret the critical behavior.