Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 5, May 2003
- AEROACOUSTICS, ATMOSPHERIC SOUND 
An optical fiber infrasound sensor: A new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1566978View Description Hide Description
A new distributed sensor for detectingpressure variations caused by distant sources has been developed. The instrument reduces noise due to air turbulence in the infrasound band by averaging pressure along a line by means of monitoring strain in a long tubular diaphragm with an optical fiber interferometer. Above 1 Hz, the optical fiberinfrasoundsensor (OFIS) is less noisy than sensors relying on mechanical filters. Records collected from an 89-m-long OFIS indicate a new low noise limit in the band from 1 to 10 Hz. Because the OFIS integrates pressure variations at light-speed rather than the speed of sound, phase delays of the acoustical signals caused by the sensor are negligible. Very long fiber-optic sensors are feasible and hold the promise of better wind-noise reduction than can be achieved with acoustical-mechanical systems.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1566977View Description Hide Description
Pierce’s formulation for the diffraction of spherical waves by a hard wedge has been extended to the case of the sound field due to a dipole source. The same approach is also used to extend a semiempiricalmodel for sound propagation above an impedance discontinuity due to a dipole source. The resulting formulas have been validated by comparing their numerical solutions with that computed by summing the sound fields due to two closely spaced monopole sources of equal magnitude but opposite in phase. These new formulations are then used to develop a simple model for calculating the dipole sound fielddiffracted by a barrier above an impedance ground. Applications of these models relate to transportation noise prediction, particularly railway noise abatement, for which dipole sources are commonly used. The numerical predictions have been found to compare reasonably well with indoor measurements using piezoceramic transducers as dipole sources.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1559191View Description Hide Description
Acoustic surface waves have been detected propagating outdoors under natural conditions. Two critical experimental conditions were employed to ensure the conclusive detection of these waves. First, acoustic pulses rather than a continuous wave source allowed an examination of the waveform shape and avoided the masking of wave arrivals. Second, a snow cover provided favorable ground impedance conditions for surface waves to exist. The acoustic pulses were generated by blank pistol shots fired 1 m above the snow. The resultant waveforms were measured using a vertical array of six microphones located 60 m away from the source at heights between 0.1 and 4.75 m. A strong, low frequency “tail” following the initial arrival was recorded near the snow surface. This tail, and its exponential decay with height above the surface are diagnostic features of surface waves. The measured attenuation coefficient α was The identification of the surface wave is confirmed by comparing the measured waveforms with waveforms predicted by the theoretical evaluation of the explicit surface wave pole term using residue theory.