Volume 113, Issue 5, May 2003
Index of content:
- GENERAL LINEAR ACOUSTICS 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1560211View Description Hide Description
A one-dimensional (1D) Fourier–Bessel series method for computing and tuning (beamforming) the linear lossless field of flat pulsed wave annular arrays is developed and supported with both numerical simulation and experimental verification. The technique represents a new method for modeling and tuning the propagated field by linking the quantized surface pressure profile to a known set of limited diffraction Bessel beams propagating into the medium. This enables derivation of an analytic expression for the field at any point in space and time in terms of the transducer surface pressure profile. Tuning of the field then also follows by formulating a least-squares design for the transducer surface pressure with respect to a given desired field in space and time. Simulated and experimental results for both field computation and tuning are presented in the context of a 10-ring annular array operating at a central frequency of 2.5 MHz in water.
Measuring the porosity and the tortuosity of porous materials via reflected waves at oblique incidence113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1567275View Description Hide Description
An ultrasonicreflectivity method is proposed for measuring porosity and tortuosity of porous materials having a rigid frame. Porosity is the relative fraction by volume of the air contained within a material. Tortuosity is a geometrical parameter which intervenes in the description of the inertial effects between the fluid filled the porous material and its structure at high frequency range. It is generally easy to evaluate the tortuosity from transmitted waves, this is not the case for porosity because of its weak sensitivity in transmitted mode. The proposed method is based on measurement of reflected wave by the first interface of a slab of rigid porous material. This method is obtained from a temporal model of the direct and inverse scattering problems for the propagation of transient ultrasonicwaves in a homogeneous isotropic slab of porous material having a rigid frame [Z. E. A. Fellah, M. Fellah, W. Lauriks, and C. Depollier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 61 (2003)]. Reflection and transmission scattering operators for a slab of porous material are derived from the responses of the medium to an incident acoustic pulse at oblique incidence. The porosity and tortuosity are determined simultaneously from the measurements of reflected waves at two oblique incidence angles. Experimental and numerical validation results of this method are presented.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1561495View Description Hide Description
Modeling the head-related transfer function (HRTF) is a key to many applications in spatial audio. To understand and predict the effects of head geometry and the surrounding environment on the HRTF, a three-dimensional finite-difference time domainmodel (3D FDTD) has been developed to simulate acoustic waveinteraction with a human head. A perfectly matched layer (PML) is used to absorb outgoing waves at the truncated boundary of an unbounded medium. An external source is utilized to reduce the computational domain size through the scattered-field/total-field formulation. This numerical model has been validated by analytical solutions for a spherical head model. The 3D FDTD code is then used as a computational tool to predict the HRTF for various scenarios. In particular, a simplified spherical head model is compared to a realistic head model up to about 7 kHz. The HRTF is also computed for a realistic head model in the presence of a wall. It is demonstrated that this 3D FDTDmodel can be a useful tool for spatial audio applications.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1564015View Description Hide Description
A self-consistent method for analyzing antiplane shear wave propagation in two-dimensional inhomogeneous media is presented. For applications in the high-frequency range, the self-consistent condition for the effective medium is solved being supplemented with the theory of quasidynamic effective density. Comparisons with other theoretical calculations and experimental data for fiber-reinforced composites demonstrate the merits of using the present method.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1565071View Description Hide Description
The Helmholtz equation (HE) describes wave propagation in applications such as acoustics and electromagnetics. For realistic problems, solving the HE is often too expensive. Instead, approximations like the parabolic wave equation (PE) are used. For low-frequency shallow-water environments, one persistent problem is to assess the accuracy of the PE model. In this work, a recently developed HE solver that can handle a smoothly varying bathymetry, variable material properties, and layered materials, is used for an investigation of the errors in PE solutions. In the HE solver, a preconditioned Krylov subspace method is applied to the discretized equations. The preconditioner combines domain decomposition and fast transform techniques. A benchmark problem with upslope–downslope propagation over a penetrable lossy seamount is solved. The numerical experiments show that, for the same bathymetry, a soft and slow bottom gives very similar HE and PE solutions, whereas the PE model is far from accurate for a hard and fast bottom. A first attempt to estimate the error is made by computing the relative deviation from the energy balance for the PE solution. This measure gives an indication of the magnitude of the error, but cannot be used as a strict error bound.