Volume 113, Issue 5, May 2003
Index of content:
- ULTRASONICS, QUANTUM ACOUSTICS, AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF SOUND 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1561496View Description Hide Description
The method developed here exploits the wide angular range of focused acoustic probes and the large synthetic aperture of scanned transducers to permit a rapid and reliable estimation of material properties in thin plates. It is found in several tests with various materials that estimates of elastic behavior using this method agree with contact measurements to within less than 5%. The method utilizes transmission (or reflection) coefficient reconstruction for an infinite thin plate, across a wide range of frequency and wave number, from which elastic property estimates are made. Data collected over a large synthetic acoustic aperture are processed with temporal and spatial Fourier transforms applied to change the acquired data from the coordinate and time domains to the wave number and frequency domains. Extrinsic real-beam effects on the data are accounted for with a complex transducer point analysis. Transmission measurements yield reconstructed data extending to the mode cutoffs, permitting easy and nearly unambiguous estimation of a subset of the elastic stiffnesses. For anisotropic plates, elastic stiffnesses are estimated with an inversion procedure that uses only limited data carefully selected from different portions of the measured scattering coefficient. Estimates are made by reconstructing in a stepwise fashion, based on sensitivity studies, where only one stiffness is estimated from the data at any one time, restricting the optimization to a robust one-dimensional search.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1564017View Description Hide Description
It is widely recognized that acoustic degrees of freedom coupled to a thermal bath have amplitudes which fluctuate with a mean square proportional to temperature; this is the basis for the Debye theory of the heat capacity of insulating solids. It is shown here that these elastic wave thermal phonons have correlation functions identical to the system’s ultrasonicGreen’s function, and furthermore that thermal noise in ultrasonic detectors should have correlation functions equivalent to conventional waveforms obtained by active transmission and reception. This suggests the possibility of doing ultrasonics without a source. Theory for the identity is presented, and several room temperature laboratory confirmations are conducted in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 MHz. The thermal nature of the origin of these correlations is established by comparing their strength with theoretical expectations. Applications are discussed.
Guided waves propagating in sandwich structures made of anisotropic, viscoelastic, composite materials113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1562913View Description Hide Description
The propagation of Lamb-like waves in sandwich plates made of anisotropic and viscoelastic material layers is studied. A semi-analytical model is described and used for predicting the dispersion curves (phase velocity, energy velocity, and complex wave-number) and the through-thickness distribution fields (displacement, stress, and energy flow). Guided modes propagating along a test-sandwich plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, because this structure does not have the mirror symmetry, contrary to most of composite material plates. Moreover, the viscoelastic materialproperties imply complex roots of the dispersion equation to be found that lead to connections between some of the dispersion curves, meaning that some of the modes get coupled together. Gradual variation from zero to nominal values of the imaginary parts of the viscoelasticmoduli shows that the mode coupling depends on the level of materialviscoelasticity, except for one particular case where this phenomenon exists whether the medium is viscoelastic or not. The model is used to quantify the sensitivity of both the dispersion curves and the through-thickness mode shapes to the level of materialviscoelasticity, and to physically explain the mode-coupling phenomenon. Finite element software is also used to confirm results obtained for the purely elastic structure. Finally, experiments are made using ultrasonic, air-coupled transducers for generating and detecting guided modes in the test-sandwich structure. The mode-coupling phenomenon is then confirmed, and the potential of the air-coupled system for developing single-sided, contactless, NDT applications of such structures is discussed.