Volume 113, Issue 6, June 2003
Index of content:
- BIOACOUSTICS 
Acoustic correlates of caller identity and affect intensity in the vowel-like grunt vocalizations of baboons113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1568942View Description Hide Description
Comparative, production-based research on animal vocalizations can allow assessments of continuity in vocal communication processes across species, including humans, and may aid in the development of general frameworks relating specific constitutional attributes of callers to acoustic-structural details of their vocal output. Analyses were undertaken on vowel-like baboon grunts to examine variation attributable to caller identity and the intensity of the affective state underlying call production. Six hundred six grunts from eight adult females were analyzed. Grunts derived from 128 bouts of calling in two behavioral contexts: concerted group movements and social interactions involving mothers and their young infants. Each context was subdivided into a high- and low-arousal condition. Thirteen acoustic features variously predicted to reflect variation in either caller identity or arousal intensity were measured for each grunt bout, including tempo-, source- and filter-related features. Grunt bouts were highly individually distinctive, differing in a variety of acoustic dimensions but with some indication that filter-related features contributed disproportionately to individual distinctiveness. In contrast, variation according to arousal condition was associated primarily with tempo- and source-related features, many matching those identified as vehicles of affect expression in other nonhuman primate species and in human speech and other nonverbal vocal signals.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1568943View Description Hide Description
Comparative analyses of the roar vocalization of male harbor seals from ten sites throughout their distribution showed that vocal variation occurs at the oceanic, regional, population, and subpopulation level. Genetic barriers based on the physical distance between harbor seal populations present a likely explanation for some of the observed vocal variation. However, site-specific vocal variations were present between genetically mixed subpopulations in California. A tree-based classification analysis grouped Scottish populations together with eastern Pacific sites, rather than amongst Atlantic sites as would be expected if variation was based purely on genetics. Lastly, within the classification tree no individual vocal parameter was consistently responsible for consecutive splits between geographic sites. Combined, these factors suggest that site-specific variation influences the development of vocal structure in harbor seals and these factors may provide evidence for the occurrence of vocal dialects.
Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to low-frequency sound broadcasts113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1573637View Description Hide Description
Humpback whale song lengths were measured from recordings made off the west coast of the island of Hawai’i in March 1998 in relation to acoustic broadcasts (“pings”) from the U.S. Navy SURTASS Low Frequency Active sonar system. Generalized additive models were used to investigate the relationships between song length and time of year, time of day, and broadcast factors. There were significant seasonal and diurnal effects. The seasonal factor was associated with changes in the density of whales sighted near shore. The diurnal factor was associated with changes in surface social activity. Songs that ended within a few minutes of the most recent ping tended to be longer than songs sung during control periods. Many songs that were overlapped by pings, and songs that ended several minutes after the most recent ping, did not differ from songs sung in control periods. The longest songs were sung between 1 and 2 h after the last ping. Humpbacks responded to louder broadcasts with longer songs. The fraction of variation in song length that could be attributed to broadcast factors was low. Much of the variation in humpback song length remains unexplained.
Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1570438View Description Hide Description
Behaviorally determined hearing thresholds for a 7.5-kHz tone for an Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) were obtained following exposure to fatiguing low-frequency octave band noise. The fatiguing stimulus ranged from 4 to 11 kHz and was gradually increased in intensity to 179 dB re 1 μPa and in duration to 55 min. Exposures occurred no more frequently than once per week. Measured temporary threshold shifts averaged 11 dB. Threshold determination took at least 20 min. Recovery was examined 360, 180, 90, and 45 min following exposure and was essentially complete within 45 min.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1568945View Description Hide Description
A theoretical expression for the variance of scatterer size estimates is derived for a modified least squares size estimator used in conjunction with a reference phantom method for backscatter coefficient measurement. A Gaussian spatial autocorrelation function is assumed. Simulations and phantom experiments were performed to verify the results for backscatter and size variances. The dependence of size estimate errors upon free experimental parameters is explored. Implications of the findings for the optimization of scatterer size estimation are discussed. The utility of scatterer size parametric imaging is examined through the signal to noise ratio comparison with standard ultrasonic B-mode imaging.