Index of content:
Volume 113, Issue 6, June 2003
- TRANSDUCTION 
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1572147View Description Hide Description
Background noise studies have been extended from air condenser microphones to piezoresistive, electret condenser, and ceramic microphones. Theoretical models of the respective noise sources within each microphone are developed and are used to derive analytical expressions for the noise power spectral density for each type. Several additional noise sources for the piezoresistive and electret microphones, beyond what had previously been considered, were applied to the models and were found to contribute significantly to the total noise power spectral density. Experimental background noise measurements were taken using an upgraded acoustic isolation vessel and data acquisition system, and the results were compared to the theoretically obtained expressions. The models were found to yield power spectral densities consistent with the experimental results. The measurements reveal that the noise coefficient is strongly correlated with the diaphragm damping resistance, irrespective of the detection technology, i.e., air condenser, piezoresistive, etc. This conclusion has profound implications upon the expected noise component of micromachined (MEMS) microphones.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1562649View Description Hide Description
Smart structures technology can be applied to amplified acoustic guitars to prevent instability resulting from acoustic feedback. This work presents a coupled model of the guitar dynamics and the acoustic feedback mechanism, and explains how a simple control loop using a piezoelectric ceramic actuator can be used to reduce the effects of acoustic feedback. In addition to model simulations, experimental results using a real system and a simple controller are presented. The results show that a significantly higher (7 dB) guitar output can be achieved before instability, without detrimentally affecting the amplified and unamplified guitar response.
113(2003); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1568944View Description Hide Description
Very thin and small piezoelectric radiators have been developed in this research. The system is modeled by using the energy method in conjunction with the assumed-modes method. Electrical system, mechanical system, and acoustic loading have all been accounted for during the modeling stage. On the basis of the simulation model, the genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to optimize the overall configurations for a low resonance frequency and a large gain. The resulting designs are then implemented and evaluated experimentally. Performance indices for the experimental evaluation include the frequency response, the directional response, the sensitivity, and the efficiency. It is found in the experimental results that the piezoelectric radiators are able to produce comparable acoustical output with significantly less electrical input than the voice-coil panel speakers.