Index of content:
Volume 115, Issue 1, January 2004
- TRANSDUCTION 
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1635836View Description Hide Description
The resonance and antiresonance frequency, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient, and the mechanical quality factor of a sandwich piezoelectricultrasonic transducer are studied and optimized. The effect of the thickness of thick piezoelectric element electrodes on the transducer performance is analyzed. The effect of the length and position of the piezoelectric elements in the transducer is also studied. It is shown that, although using thick electrodes is beneficial for releasing heat produced by the piezoelectric elements, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient and the mechanical quality factor are reduced. The length and the position of the piezoelectric elements affect the performances of the transducer. Increasing the length of the piezoelectric elements decreases the mechanical quality factor, but the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient increases. When the length reaches a certain value, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient reaches a maximum value. When the piezoelectric elements are located at the geometrical center or the displacement node, the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient and the mechanical quality factor are maximized.
Nonperturbing measurements of spatially distributed underwater acoustic fields using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1635841View Description Hide Description
Localized changes in the density of water induced by the presence of an acoustic field cause perturbations in the localized refractive index. This relationship has given rise to a number of nonperturbing optical metrology techniques for recording measurement parameters from underwater acoustic fields. A method that has been recently developed involves the use of a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) targeted at a fixed, nonvibrating, plate through an underwater acoustic field. Measurements of the rate of change of optical pathlength along a line section enable the identification of the temporal and frequency characteristics of the acoustic wave front. This approach has been extended through the use of a scanning LDV, which facilitates the measurement of a range of spatially distributed parameters. A mathematical model is presented that relates the distribution of pressure amplitude and phase in a planar wave front with the rate of change of optical pathlength measured by the LDV along a specifically orientated laser line section. Measurements of a 1 MHz acoustic tone burst generated by a focused transducer are described and the results presented. Graphical depictions of the acoustic power and phase distribution recorded by the LDV are shown, together with images representing time history during the acoustic wave propagation.