Index of content:
Volume 115, Issue 2, February 2004
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1639906View Description Hide Description
Microphone arrays can be used for acoustic source localization and characterization in wind tunneltesting. In this paper, the wideband RELAX (WB-RELAX) and the wideband CLEAN (WB-CLEAN) algorithms are presented for aeroacousticimaging using an acoustic array. WB-RELAX is a parametric approach that can be used efficiently for point source imaging without the sidelobe problems suffered by the delay-and-sum beamforming approaches. WB-CLEAN does not have sidelobe problems either, but it behaves more like a nonparametric approach and can be used for both point source and distributed source imaging. Moreover, neither of the algorithms suffers from the severe performance degradations encountered by the adaptive beamforming methods when the number of snapshots is small and/or the sources are highly correlated or coherent with each other. A two-step optimization procedure is used to implement the WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN algorithms efficiently. The performance of WB-RELAX and WB-CLEAN is demonstrated by applying them to measured data obtained at the NASA Langley Quiet Flow Facility using a small aperture directional array (SADA). Somewhat surprisingly, using these approaches, not only were the parameters of the dominant source accurately determined, but a highly correlated multipath of the dominant source was also discovered.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1636462View Description Hide Description
In order to achieve an optimal focusing through heterogeneous media we need to build the inverse filter of the propagation operator. Time reversal is an easy and robust way to achieve such an inverse filter in nondissipative media. However, as soon as losses appear in the medium, time reversal is not equivalent to the inverse filter anymore. Consequently, it does not produce the optimal focusing and beam degradations may appear. In such cases, we showed in previous works that the optimal focusing can be recovered by using the so-called spatiotemporal inverse filter technique. This process requires the presence of a complete set of receivers inside the medium. It allows one to reach the optimal focusing even in extreme situations such as ultrasonic focusing through human skull or audible sound focusing in strongly reverberant rooms. But, this technique is time consuming and implied fastidious numerical calculations. In this paper we propose a new way to process this inverse filter focusing technique in real time and without any calculation. The new process is based on iterative time reversal process. Contrary to the classical inverse filter technique, this iteration does not require any computation and achieves the inverse filter in an experimental way using wave propagation instead of computational power. The convergence from time reversal to inverse filter during the iterative process is theoretically explained. Finally, the feasibility of this iterative technique is experimentally demonstrated for ultrasound applications.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1636463View Description Hide Description
The iterative time reversal processing represents a high speed and easy way to self-focus on the strongest scatterer in a multitarget medium. However, finding weaker scatterers is a more difficult task that can be solved by computing the eigenvalue and eigenvector decomposition of the time reversal operator, the so-called DORT method. Nevertheless, as it requires the measurement of the complete interelements response matrix and time-consuming computation, the separation of multiple targets may not be achieved in real time. In this study, a new real time technique is proposed for multitarget selective focusing that does not require the experimental acquisition of the time reversal operator. This technique achieves the operator decomposition using a particular sequence of filtered waves propagation instead of computational power. Due to its simplicity of implementation, this iterative process can be achieved in real time. This high speed selective focusing is experimentally demonstrated by detecting targets through a heterogeneous medium and in a speckle environment. A theoretical analysis compares this technique to the DORT formalism.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1641377View Description Hide Description
A new data extrapolation method for boundary element method (BEM)-based near-field acoustical holography (NAH) is proposed to reduce an error of the reconstructed result obtained from the pressuremeasured on an aperture small compared with the structure. The finiteness of the measurement aperture is a serious impediment to actual large-scale implementation of NAH, because NAH requires the measurement of the pressure field over a complete surface of structure. To eliminate the requirement, the wave number-space data extrapolation method for fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based NAH has been proposed. In this paper, the extension of this data extrapolation method to BEM-based NAH is presented. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by experiments. The experiment results confirm that the reconstruction error is sufficiently suppressed by the proposed method.