Index of content:
Volume 115, Issue 2, February 2004
- TRANSDUCTION 
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1642622View Description Hide Description
The mechanical effects of the metal layer on the membranes of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are analyzed in this paper by means of finite element simulations. The influence of electrode size and thickness on the electrostatic behavior of the single CMUT cell, including diaphragm displacement, cell capacitance, and collapse voltage, is explored. The effect on device sensitivity is investigated through the transformation factor of the cell, that is computed by FEM and compared with the parallel plate model prediction. It is found that for a non-negligible electrode thickness, as in the majority of fabricated devices, both the static and dynamic performance of the cell can be affected in a significant way. Thus, the effects of membranemetallization must be taken into account in CMUT design and optimization.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1639326View Description Hide Description
Acoustic transducers made from piezoelectric ceramic cylinders usually exploit the breathing or omnidirectional (omni) mode of vibration. However, with suitable voltage distribution, higher order extensional modes of the cylinder can be excited which produce directional radiation patterns. These modal radiation patterns can then be combined to synthesize desired beam patterns which may be steered by incrementing the excitation. This paper describes a model for the combined acoustic response of the extensional modes of vibration of a piezoelectric ceramic cylinder, a method of synthesizing a desired radiation pattern, and an experimental implementation of a directional transducer that uses these techniques. This tri-modal transducer is broadband and directional with a frequency independent beam pattern yet simple, small, and lightweight.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1639328View Description Hide Description
The mutual resistance of transducer arrays is investigated in order to design arrays with improved performance for high intensity sounds at a given frequency. This work proposes the theory that the mutual resistance is related to the loading effects of pressure waves propagated from a piston driver on the surface of another driver. Using this interpretation, the important characteristics of the mutual resistance of two piston drivers are explained and the conditions for local maxima in the mutual resistance are easily determined. On the basis of analyses of the interactions between a driver and acoustic pressurewaves, we propose a method to determine the driver radius and the distance between two drivers that give maximum mutual radiation resistance. To evaluate the proposed method, the total resistance of a transducer array is calculated using the formulas for mutual and self-resistance established by Pritchard. The results of the calculations of the total resistances of arrays with many drivers show that a transducer array with drivers arranged sparsely can achieve a larger value of the radiation power per unit area as well as better radiation efficiency than an array in which the drivers are in a closely packed arrangement at a given frequency.
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1632091View Description Hide Description
The results of an interlaboratory comparison on microphone calibration involving five National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) are presented. The Institute for National Measurement Standards (INMS—Canada), was the pilot laboratory that provided the data analysis for this investigation. The final results presented here were discussed and agreed upon by all participants. The maximum rms deviation for the two LS1P laboratory standard microphones measured by the above participants is 0.037 dB, which may be considered as the key comparison reference value.