Index of content:
Volume 115, Issue 3, March 2004
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1645855View Description Hide Description
Sound can convey information about the materials composing an object that are often not directly available to the visual system. Material and geometric properties of synthesized impacted bars with a tube resonator were varied, their perceptual structure was inferred from multidimensional scaling of dissimilarity judgments, and the psychophysical relations between the two were quantified. Constant cross-section bars varying in mass density and viscoelastic damping coefficient were synthesized with a physical model in experiment 1. A two-dimensional perceptual space resulted, and the dimensions were correlated with the mechanical parameters after applying a power-law transformation. Variable cross-section bars varying in length and viscoelastic damping coefficient were synthesized in experiment 2 with two sets of lengths creating high- and low-pitched bars. In the low-pitched bars, there was a coupling between the bar and the resonator that modified the decay characteristics. Perceptual dimensions again corresponded to the mechanical parameters. A set of potential temporal, spectral, and spectrotemporal correlates of the auditory representation were derived from the signal. The dimensions related to mass density and bar length were correlated with the frequency of the lowest partial and are related to pitch perception. The correlate most likely to represent the viscoelastic damping coefficient across all three stimulus sets is a linear combination of a decay constant derived from the temporal envelope and the spectral center of gravity derived from a cochlear representation of the signal. These results attest to the perceptual salience of energy-loss phenomena in sound source behavior.
On the use of the derivative of electroglottographic signals for characterization of nonpathological phonation115(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1646401View Description Hide Description
Electroglottography is a common method for providing noninvasive measurements of glottal activity. The derivative of the electroglottographic signal, however, has not attracted much attention, although it yields reliable indicators of glottal closing instants. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide to the usefulness of this signal. The main features that are to be found in this signal are presented on the basis of an extensive analysis of a database of items sung by 18 trained singers.Glottal opening and closing instants are related to peaks in the signal; the latter can be used to measureglottal parameters such as fundamental frequency and open quotient. In some cases, peaks are doubled or imprecise, which points to special (but by no means uncommon) glottal configurations. A correlation-based algorithm for the automatic measurement of fundamental frequency and open quotient using the derivative of electroglottographic signals is proposed. It is compared to three other electroglottographic-based methods with regard to the measurement of open quotient in inverse-filtered derived glottal flow. It is shown that agreement with the glottal-flow measurements is much better than most threshold-based measurements in the case of sustained sounds.