Index of content:
Volume 116, Issue 2, August 2004
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1763601View Description Hide Description
Equal-loudness-level contours provide the foundation for theoretical and practical analyses of intensity-frequency characteristics of auditory systems. Since 1956 equal-loudness-level contours based on the free-field measurements of Robinson and Dadson [Br. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 166–181 (1956)] have been widely accepted. However, in 1987 some questions about the general applicability of these contours were published [H. Fastl and E. Zwicker, Fortschritte der Akustik, DAGA ’87, pp. 189–193 (1987)]. As a result, a new international effort to measure equal-loudness-level contours was undertaken. The present paper brings together the results of 12 studies starting in the mid-1980s to arrive at a new set of contours. The new contours estimated in this study are compared with four sets of classic contours taken from the available literature. The contours described by Fletcher and Munson [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 5, 82–108 (1933)] exhibit some overall similarity to our proposed estimated contours in the mid-frequency range up to 60 phons. The contours described by Robinson and Dadson exhibit clear differences from the new contours. These differences are most pronounced below 500 Hz and the discrepancy is often as large as 14 dB.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1768946View Description Hide Description
Available virtual sensing schemes either depend on assumptions that are valid for isolated frequencies, or require heavy online adaptations. A simple method is proposed here to predict the virtual signal exactly for broadband noise control in a lightly damped enclosure. The proposed method requires two physical sensors installed judiciously in a sound field to predict a virtual signal. The method is based on an exact mathematical relation between the virtual and physical sensors, which is valid for the entire frequency of interest. It is possible to use multiple sensor-pairs to reduce the sensitivity of the proposed method with respect to acoustic parameters, such as speed of sound or sensor mismatching. Experimental results are presented to verify the analytical results.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1768947View Description Hide Description
Multimode shunt damping of piezoelectric smart panel is studied for noise reduction. Piezoelectric smart panel is a plate structure on which a piezoelectric patch is attached with an electrical shunt circuit. When an incidence sound is impinged on the panel structure, the structure vibrates and the attached piezoelectric patch produces an electrical energy, which can be effectively dissipated as heat via the electrical shunt circuit. Since the energy dissipation strongly depends on the vibration mode of the panel structure, many patches are required for multiple vibration modes. Instead of using multiple piezoelectric patches, a single piezoelectric patch is used in conjunction with a blocked shunt circuit for multimode shunt damping. Modeling, shunt parameter tuning, and implementation of the blocked shunt circuit along with an acoustic test of the panel are explained. A remarkable reduction of the transmitted noise was achieved for multiple modes of the panel. Since this technology has many merits in terms of compactness, low cost, robustness, and ease of installation, practical applications in many noise problems can be anticipated.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1766305View Description Hide Description
Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-night level (DNL) or day-evening-night level (DENL)] from a single source (aircraft, road traffic, or railways) and annoyance based on a large international dataset have been published earlier. Also for stationary sources relationships have been assessed. Here the annoyance equivalents model concerning noise annoyance from combined sources and the underlying assumptions are presented. The model first translates the noise from the individual sources into the equally annoying sound levels of a reference source, road traffic, and then sums these levels giving total level L. The annoyance from the combined sources is found by substituting exposure L in the road traffic exposure-annoyance relationship. The most important assumption, independence of the contributions of the sources, is discussed. It appears that independence will be violated substantially only due to the effect of the presence or absence of a quiet side of a building, which is not incorporated in the model. For use in practice, the application of the model is broken down in five steps. The step by step procedure can be used for the assessment of the total noise level and the associated total annoyance on the basis of the DNL or DENL values of the individual sources.