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A resonant, self-pumped, circulating thermoacoustic heat exchanger
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18.What acousticians call the volume velocity is known as the volume flow rate in fluid mechanics. Its dimensions are volume per unit time.
19.Size 16 (1 in.) VCO Couplings, Swagelok Company, Solon OH, www.swagelok.com.
20.Endevco, San Juan Capistrano, CA.
21.Model SR830, Stanford Research Systems, Sunnyvale CA, www.srsys.com.
22.Consistent with Ref. 33, this article uses notation such as for time-dependent variables. The subscript “” indicates a mean value that exists independent of the wave. The subscript “2,0” indicates a second-order, time-averaged correction to the mean value, caused by the wave.
23.W. C. Ward and G. W. Swift, “Design environment for low amplitude thermoacoustic engines (DeltaE),” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 3671–3672 (1994). Software and user’s guide available either from the Los Alamos thermoacoustics web site at www.lanl.gov/thermoacoustics/ or from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.
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27.Model SRFG-348/5 rectangular silicone rubbber heaters, Omega Engineering, Stamford, CT, www.omega.com.
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37.Indeed, we did originally expect this, until experimental results induced us to consider the question more carefully.
38.Equation (19), with the choices for and described below Eq. (11), account for minor-loss effects at the small ends of the gas diodes, but not for the surface-induced friction factor in the conical portions.
39.In US Patent No. 6,637,211, 28 October 2003, “Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators,” by G. W. Swift and S. N. Backhaus, Eqs. (4) and (5) are incorrect. Equations (16) and (17) here give the correct definition of acoustic power for a volume velocity equal to the sum of a time-independent term and a sinusoidal term.
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45.The thermoacoustic-Stirling engine described in Ref. 10 is now operating with a half-wavelength, one-diode hot heat transfer loop in place of its original internal electric-resistance hot heat exchanger. The performance of this hardware is described in “A self-circulating heat exchanger for use in Stirling and thermoacoustic-Stirling engines,” S. Backhaus and R. S. Reid, in preparation for the Space Technology International Forum 2005.
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