Index of content:
Volume 116, Issue 6, December 2004
- ACOUSTIC SIGNAL PROCESSING 
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1798356View Description Hide Description
Utilizing a simple model in which the acoustic wave function is a sum of independent Gaussian wave packets, the relative intensity variance or scintillation index (SI) is analytically calculated. The model has an unspecified probability density function (PDF) for wave packet amplitudes and Gaussian PDFs for travel-time-induced and non-travel-time-induced phase shifts; amplitudes and both phase shifts are assumed to be mutually uncorrelated. It is shown that a proper treatment of the mean field is required to obtain the saturation value, SI=1, in the limit of a large number of interfering wave packets. The analytic formulas for SI allow identification of important wave packet parameters in the approach to saturation. Criteria are identified for both broadband and narrow-band cases for which the approach to saturation is from above and below 1. It is demonstrated that the broadband approach to saturation is much slower than the narrow-band cases, since wave packets separated in time by more than an inverse bandwidth do not strongly contribute to interference. This effect is quantified by the time–bandwidth product. The model is also used to obtain an analytic expression for pulse time spread; it is shown that multipath conditions which favor a rapid approach to saturation do not favor large pulse spread.
Development of a laser photothermoacoustic frequency-swept system for subsurface imaging: Theory and experiment116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1819393View Description Hide Description
In conventional biomedical photoacoustic imaging systems, a pulsed laser is used to generate time-of-flight acoustic information of the subsurface features. This paper reports the theoretical and experimental development of a new frequency-domain (FD) photo-thermo-acoustic (PTA) principle featuring frequency sweep (chirp) and heterodyne modulation and lock-in detection of a continuous-wave laser source at 1064 nm wavelength. PTA imaging is a promising new technique which is being developed to detect tumor masses in turbid biological tissue. Owing to the linear relationship between the depth of acoustic signal generation and the delay time of signal arrival to the transducer, information specific to a particular depth can be associated with a particular frequency in the chirp signal. Scanning laser modulation with a linear frequency sweep method preserves the depth-to-delay time linearity and recovers FD-PTA signals from a range of depths. Preliminary results performed on rubber samples and solid tissue phantoms indicate that the FD-PTA technique has the potential to be a reliable tool for biomedical depth-profilometric imaging.