Index of content:
Volume 116, Issue 6, December 2004
- PSYCHOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
The bat head-related transfer function reveals binaural cues for sound localization in azimuth and elevation116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1811412View Description Hide Description
Directional properties of the sound transformation at the ear of four intact echolocating bats, Eptesicus fuscus, were investigated via measurements of the head-related transfer function (HRTF). Contributions of external ear structures to directional features of the transfer functions were examined by remeasuring the HRTF in the absence of the pinna and tragus. The investigation mainly focused on the interactions between the spatial and the spectral features in the bat HRTF. The pinna provides gain and shapes these features over a large frequency band (20–90 kHz), and the tragus contributes gain and directionality at the high frequencies (60 to 90 kHz). Analysis of the spatial and spectral characteristics of the bat HRTF reveals that both interaural level differences (ILD) and monaural spectral features are subject to changes in sound source azimuth and elevation. Consequently, localization cues for horizontal and vertical components of the sound source location interact. Availability of multiple cues about sound source azimuth and elevation should enhance information to support reliable sound localization. These findings stress the importance of the acoustic information received at the two ears for sound localization of sonar target position in both azimuth and elevation.
Relative contributions of temporal and place pitch cues to fundamental frequency discrimination in cochlear implantees116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1823311View Description Hide Description
The effect of the filter bank on fundamental frequency discrimination was examined in four Nucleus CI24 cochlear implant subjects for synthetic stylized vowel-like stimuli. The four tested filter banks differed in cutoff frequencies, amount of overlap between filters, and shape of the filters. To assess the effects of temporal pitch cues on discrimination, temporal fluctuations were removed above 10 Hz in one condition and above 200 Hz in another. Results indicate that discrimination based upon place pitch cues is possible, but just-noticeable differences exceed 1 octave or more depending on the filter bank used. Increasing the frequency resolution in the range improves the discrimination based upon place pitch cues. The results of discrimination based upon place pitch agree with a model that compares the centroids of the electrical excitation pattern. The addition of temporal fluctuations up to 200 Hz significantly improves discrimination. Just-noticeable differences using both place and temporal pitch cues range from 6% to 60%. Filter banks that do not resolve the higher harmonics provided the best temporal pitch cues, because temporal pitch cues are clearest when the fluctuation on all channels is at and preferably in phase.
Methodological aspects of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search to optimize speech perception using three hearing-aid algorithms116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1808220View Description Hide Description
In this study we investigated the reliability and convergence characteristics of an adaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure, relative to a nonadaptive multidirectional pattern search procedure. The procedure was designed to optimize three speech-processing strategies. These comprise noise reduction, spectral enhancement, and spectral lift. The search is based on a paired-comparison paradigm, in which subjects evaluated the listening comfort of speech-in-noise fragments. The procedural and nonprocedural factors that influence the reliability and convergence of the procedure are studied using various test conditions. The test conditions combine different tests, initial settings, background noise types, and step size configurations. Seven normal hearing subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that the reliability of the optimization strategy may benefit from the use of an adaptive step size. Decreasing the step size increases accuracy, while increasing the step size can be beneficial to create clear perceptual differences in the comparisons. The reliability also depends on starting point, stop criterion, step size constraints, background noise, algorithms used, as well as the presence of drifting cues and suboptimal settings. There appears to be a trade-off between reliability and convergence, i.e., when the step size is enlarged the reliability improves, but the convergence deteriorates.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1811474View Description Hide Description
Auditory processing of frequency modulation(FM) was explored. In experiment 1, detection of a π-radians modulator phase shift deteriorated as modulation rate increased from 2.5 to 20 Hz, for 1- and 6-kHz carriers. In experiment 2, listeners discriminated between two 1-kHz carriers, where, mid-way through, the 10-Hz frequency modulator had either a phase shift or increased in depth by ΔD% for half a modulator period. Discrimination was poorer for than for smaller or larger increases. These results are consistent with instantaneous frequency being smoothed by a time window with a total duration of about 110 ms. In experiment 3, the central 200-ms of a 1-s 1-kHz carrier modulated at 5 Hz was replaced by noise, or by a faster FM applied to a more intense 1-kHz carrier. Listeners heard the 5-Hz FM continue at the same depth throughout the stimulus. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that, after an FM tone had been interrupted by a 200-ms noise, listeners were insensitive to the phase at which the FM resumed. It is argued that the auditory system explicitly encodes the presence, and possibly the rate and depth, of FM in a way that does not preserve information on FM phase.