Index of content:
Volume 116, Issue 6, December 2004
- UNDERWATER SOUND 
Multiple-order derivatives of a waveguide acoustic field with respect to sound speed, density, and frequency116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1760107View Description Hide Description
An adjoint perturbative method is used to derive expressions for the first- through third-order derivatives of a pressure field with respect to sound speed, density, and frequency, for the restricted case of a laterally homogenous waveguide in which environmental parameters are only a function of depth. By using a normal-mode Green’s function, the three-dimensional spatial correlation required by the standard acoustic adjoint equation can be reduced to a set of one-dimensional depth integrals. The resulting expressions for the first-order derivative are similar to those obtained by previous perturbative approaches based on the depth-separated wave equation, but the approach followed here permits straightforward extension to higher-order derivatives. Explicit evaluations of the expressions for a representative shallow-water waveguidemodel are in excellent agreement with numerical finite-difference computations. An analysis of the expressions as a function of source-receiver range finds the contributions to the mode amplitude derivatives to be non-negligible at ranges less than a few modal interference lengths, for parameters associated with the ocean bottom. Therefore, linear perturbative inversion methods that perturb only horizontal wavenumbers and not mode amplitudes should either be used with caution or modified to incorporate the expressions presented here.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1804632View Description Hide Description
An underwater acoustic intensity sensor is described. This sensor derives acoustic intensity from simultaneous, co-located measurement of the acoustic pressure and one component of the acoustic particle acceleration vector. The sensor consists of a pressure transducer in the form of a hollow piezoceramic cylinder and a pair of miniature accelerometers mounted inside the cylinder. Since this sensor derives acoustic intensity from measurement of acoustic pressure and acoustic particle acceleration, it is called a intensity probe. The sensor is ballasted to be nearly neutrally buoyant. It is desirable for the accelerometers to measure only the rigid body motion of the assembled probe and for the effective centers of the pressure sensor and accelerometer to be coincident. This is achieved by symmetric disposition of a pair of accelerometers inside the ceramic cylinder. The response of the intensity probe is determined by comparison with a reference hydrophone in a predominantly reactive acoustic field.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1811475View Description Hide Description
Passively detectingunderwater sound from the air can allow aircraft and surface vessels to monitor the underwater acoustic environment. Experimental research into an optical hydrophone is being conducted for remote, aerial detection of underwater sound. A laser beam is directed onto the water surface to measure the velocity of the vibrations occurring as the underwater acoustic signal reaches the water surface. The acoustically generated surface vibrations modulate the phase of the laser beam. Sound detection occurs when the laser is reflected back towards the sensor. Therefore, laser alignment on the specularly reflecting water surface is critical. As the water surface moves, the laser beam is reflected away from the photodetector and no signal is obtained. One option to mitigate this problem is to continually steer the laser onto a spot on the water surface that provides a direct back-reflection. Results are presented from a laboratory test that investigates the feasibility of the acousto-opticsensordetection on hydrostatic and hydrodynamic surfaces using a laser Doppler vibrometer in combination with a laser-based, surface normal glint tracker for remotely detectingunderwater sound. This paper outlines the acousto-opticsensor and tracker concepts and presents experimental results comparing sensor operation under various sea surface conditions.
116(2004); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1819499View Description Hide Description
To investigate acoustic effects of nonlinear internal waves, the two southwest tracks of the SWARM 95 experiment are considered. An airgun source produced broadband acoustic signals while a packet of large nonlinear internal waves passed between the source and two vertical linear arrays. The broadband data and its frequency range (10–180 Hz) distinguish this study from previous work. Models are developed for the internal wave environment, the geoacoustic parameters, and the airgun source signature. Parabolic equation simulations demonstrate that observed variations in intensity and wavelet time–frequency plots can be attributed to nonlinear internal waves. Empirical tests are provided of the internal wave-acoustic resonance condition that is the apparent theoretical mechanism responsible for the variations. Peaks of the effective internal wave spectrum are shown to coincide with differences in dominant acoustic wavenumbers comprising the airgun signal. The robustness of these relationships is investigated by simulations for a variety of geoacoustic and nonlinear internal wavemodel parameters.