Index of content:
Volume 117, Issue 1, January 2005
- NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS 
117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1828611View Description Hide Description
An investigation of the effect of resonator dimensions on nonlinear standing waves in shaped resonators is conducted. Simple forms of the shear viscosity term in the momentum equations are developed for an axisymmetric (2D) resonator and a low aspect ratio rectangular (3D) resonator. The cross sections of the resonators are exponentially expanded and the one-dimensional wave equations are solved by using the Galerkin’s method. The quality factors, pressure waveforms, compression ratios, and resonance frequencies are calculated for different dimensionless cross sections and lengths of the resonators. The results show that, apart from the resonator length, the ratio of the cross-section dimension to the length of the resonator is an important parameter. If the ratio is greater than 0.04, the characteristics of the shaped resonator are not affected significantly. However, when the ratio is less than 0.01, the resonance becomes weak, the compression ratio drops substantially, and the frequency response changes as well.
117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1835503View Description Hide Description
The behavior of human erythrocytes and 1-μm-diameter fluorescent latex beads in the presence of Optison® contrast agent in a single half-wavelength (λ/2) ultrasound standing wave (USSW) resonator has been studied. The particle movements were observed with an epi-fluorescent microscope and the velocity of the particles and cells was measured by particle image velocimetry(PIV). Acoustic emissions were monitored with a microphone and a spectrum analyzer. Optison® contrast agent disintegrated immediately on exposure to ultrasound of 0.98-MPa acoustic pressure amplitude or higher in a chamber driven at its resonance frequency of 1.56 MHz. A discrete cloud of active microbubbles, detected at the pressure node plane, disappeared gradually and was completely lost within 15 s. The microscopy showed three-dimensional regions of circulation of both 1-μm tracer particles and erythrocytes in planes perpendicular to the pressure node plane. A numerical simulation showed that, for parameters that conform to the experimental conditions, a bubble of a subresonance size moves towards and translates about a pressure node plane. This result is in agreement with the experimental observation that the particle and cell circulation is induced by the presence and/or translational motion of microbubbles at the pressure node plane.
Time domain simulation of nonlinear acoustic beams generated by rectangular pistons with application to harmonic imaging117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1828671View Description Hide Description
A time-domain numerical code (the so-called Texas code) that solves the Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov (KZK) equation has been extended from an axis-symmetric coordinate system to a three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian coordinate system. The code accounts for diffraction (in the parabolic approximation), nonlinearity and absorption and dispersion associated with thermoviscous and relaxation processes. The 3D time domain code was shown to be in agreement with benchmark solutions for circular and rectangular sources, focused and unfocused beams, and linear and nonlinear propagation. The 3D code was used to model the nonlinear propagation of diagnosticultrasound pulses through tissue. The prediction of the second-harmonic field was sensitive to the choice of frequency-dependent absorption: a frequency squared dependence produced a second-harmonic field which peaked closer to the transducer and had a lower amplitude than that computed for an dependence. In comparing spatial maps of the harmonics we found that the second harmonic had dramatically reduced amplitude in the near field and also lower amplitude side lobes in the focal region than the fundamental. These findings were consistent for both uniform and apodized sources and could be contributing factors in the improved imaging reported with clinical scanners using tissue harmonic imaging.
117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1823351View Description Hide Description
Results are reported of the first systematic study of anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics and slow dynamics in a number of solids. Observations are presented from seven diverse materials showing that anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics (ANFD) and slow dynamics (SD) occur together, significantly expanding the nonlinear mesoscopic elasticity class. The materials include samples of gray iron, alumina ceramic, quartzite, cracked Pyrex, marble, sintered metal, and perovskite ceramic. In addition, it is shown that materials which exhibit ANFD have very similar ratios of amplitude-dependent internal-friction to the resonance-frequency shift with strain amplitude. The ratios range between 0.28 and 0.63, except for cracked Pyrex glass, which exhibits a ratio of 1.1, and the ratio appears to be a material characteristic. The ratio of internal friction to resonance frequency shift as a function of time during SD is time independent, ranging from 0.23 to 0.43 for the materials studied.