Volume 117, Issue 5, May 2005
Index of content:
- NOISE: ITS EFFECTS AND CONTROL 
117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1889437View Description Hide Description
The present work summarizes a study of the hypothesis that urban noise can be stratified by measuring street noise according to a prior classification of a town’s streets according to their use in communicating the different zones of the town. The method was applied to five medium-sized Spanish towns (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Salamanca, Badajoz, Cáceres, and Mérida) with populations ranging from 218 000 down to 50 000 and with different socio-economic characteristics, climate, etc. As the initial hypothesis of the work was that traffic is the main source of urban noise and is also the principal cause of the variability of the sound levels measured in urban settings, the study focused only on the five nonpedestrian categories of streets. The continuous equivalent sound level was employed in the statistical analysis as it is commonly used as a general noise index, and other noise indicators such as or are calculated from it. It was found that, although differences between the medians were not statistically significant in some of the towns for certain pairs of adjacent categories, the differences between pairs of nonadjacent categories were always significant, indicative of the stratification of noise in these five towns. Further studies on other medium-sized towns and on large towns and small villages would be needed to test whether the present definition of street categories is extensible elsewhere without modification.
117(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1896625View Description Hide Description
More than 80 000 residents’ responses to transportation noise from 42 studies conducted at different times of year provide statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. The strongest evidence for a seasonal effect comes from 7 years of continuous daily interviewing of nationally representative probability samples in the Netherlands. Long-term annoyance with noise is slightly, but statistically significantly, higher in the summer than in the winter. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year also provide evidence that noise annoyance varies over the year, is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. These findings are not sufficiently precise to determine whether the apparent relationships with meteorological conditions are only the result of seasonal variations or are also the result of differences in the climate at different locations. There is not consistent evidence that the meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days have any more effect on long-term noise annoyance measures than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.