Volume 118, Issue 1, July 2005
Index of content:
- ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS 
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1925847View Description Hide Description
An ansatz is proposed by which the energy transport behavior observed at early times in a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a large irregular structure may be extrapolated to arbitrary times. In the slow-transport limit, this ansatz leads to a diffusion-like equation, similar to that of time-domain statistical energy analysis (SEA), but it does not require substructuring. The model is successfully used to extract diffusion parameters from simulated data of unambiguously diffusive character. The model is then successfully used to extract diffusion parameters from data obtained in a DNS of a simple undamped two-room structure of a kind typically analyzed by SEA or room acoustics.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1929231View Description Hide Description
The results of an acoustic survey carried out in a group of Italian churches differing in style, typology, and location were used in order to study how the acoustic energy varies inside this kind of space. The effect of different architectural elements on sound propagation was investigated by means of three-dimensional impulse responses measured using a B-format microphone with sweep signals. Side chapels, columns, and trussed roofs appeared to scatter the reflections, so that the purely diffuse exponential sound decay begins after a time interval which grows with the source–receiver distance and with the complexity of the church. The results of the measurements were then compared with predictions given by existing theoretical models to check their accuracy. In particular a model previously proposed by the authors for a specific type of Romanesque churches was further refined taking into account the new findings and making some simplifications. Its application to the wider sample of churches under analysis showed that strength, clarity, and center time can be predicted with reasonable accuracy.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1923369View Description Hide Description
Listeners were asked to identify modified recordings of the words “sir” and “stir,” which were spoken by an adult male British-English speaker. Steps along a continuum between the words were obtained by a pointwise interpolation of their temporal-envelopes. These test words were embedded in a longer “context” utterance, and played with different amounts of reverberation. Increasing only the test-word’s reverberation shifts the listener’s category boundary so that more “sir”-identifications are made. This effect reduces when the context’s reverberation is also increased, indicating perceptual compensation that is informed by the context. Experiment 1 finds that compensation is more prominent in rapid speech, that it varies between rooms, that it is more prominent when the test-word’s reverberation is high, and that it increases with the context’s reverberation. Further experiments show that compensation persists when the room is switched between the context and the test word, when presentation is monaural, and when the context is reversed. However, compensation reduces when the context’s reverberation pattern is reversed, as well as when noise-versions of the context are used. “Tails” that reverberation introduces at the ends of sounds and at spectral transitions may inform the compensation mechanism about the amount of reflected sound in the signal.