Index of content:
Volume 118, Issue 1, July 2005
- MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1929229View Description Hide Description
Timbre spaces represent the organization of perceptual distances, as measured with dissimilarity ratings, among tones equated for pitch, loudness, and perceived duration. A number of potential acoustic correlates of timbre-space dimensions have been proposed in the psychoacoustic literature, including attack time, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectrum fine structure. The experiments reported here were designed as direct tests of the perceptual relevance of these acoustical parameters for timbre dissimilarity judgments. Listeners presented with carefully controlled synthetic tones use attack time, spectral centroid, and spectrum fine structure in dissimilarity rating experiments. These parameters thus appear as major determinants of timbre. However, spectral flux appears as a less salient timbre parameter, its salience depending on the number of other dimensions varying concurrently in the stimulus set. Dissimilarity ratings were analyzed with two different multidimensional scalingmodels (CLASCAL and CONSCAL), the latter providing psychophysical functions constrained by the physical parameters. Their complementarity is discussed.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1937507View Description Hide Description
A real-time synthesis model of wind instruments sounds, based upon a classical physical model, is presented. The physical model describes the nonlinear coupling between the resonator and the excitor through the Bernoulliequation. While most synthesis methods use wave variables and their sampled equivalent in order to describe the resonator of the instrument, the synthesis model presented here uses sampled versions of the physical variables all along the synthesis process, and hence constitutes a straightforward digital transposition of each part of the physical model. Moreover, the resolution scheme of the problem (i.e., the synthesis algorithm) is explicit and all the parameters of the algorithm are expressed analytically as functions of the physical and the control parameters.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1929230View Description Hide Description
A difficult issue in the synthesis of piano tones by physical models is to choose the values of the parameters governing the hammer–string model. In fact, these parameters are hard to estimate from static measurements, causing the synthesis sounds to be unrealistic. An original approach that estimates the parameters of a pianomodel, from the measurement of the string vibration, by minimizing a perceptual criterion is proposed. The minimization process that was used is a combination of a gradient method and a simulated annealing algorithm, in order to avoid convergence problems in case of multiple local minima. The criterion, based on the tristimulus concept, takes into account the spectral energy density in three bands, each allowing particular parameters to be estimated. The optimization process has been run on signals measured on an experimental setup. The parameters thus estimated provided a better sound quality than the one obtained using a global energetic criterion. Both the sound’s attack and its brightness were better preserved. This quality gain was obtained for parameter values very close to the initial ones, showing that only slight deviations are necessary to make synthetic sounds closer to the real ones.