Volume 118, Issue 1, July 2005
Index of content:
- PHYSIOLOGICAL ACOUSTICS 
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1925887View Description Hide Description
For a given set of stimulus frequencies the level of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) varies with the levels of the stimulus tones. By variation of the stimulus levels, -maps for DPOAEs can be constructed. Here, we report on -maps for DPOAEs from the frog ear. In general, these maps were similar to those obtained from the mammalian cochlea. We found a conspicuous difference between the equal-level contour lines for low-level and high-level DPOAEs, which could be modeled by a saturating and an expansive nonlinearity, respectively. The transition from the high-level to the low-level response was accompanied by a DPOAE phase-change, which increased from 0 to with increasing frequency. These results suggest that in the frog low-level and high-level DPOAEs are generated by separate nonlinear mechanisms. Also, there was a conspicuous difference in the growth of the low-level emissions from the two anuran auditory papillae. In the basilar papilla, this growth was expansive for the lowest stimulus levels and saturated for intermediate levels. This is consistent with the behavior of a Boltzman nonlinearity. In the amphibian papilla this growth was compressive, suggesting the additional effect of a compressive amplification mechanism on the generation of DPOAEs.
Coherent reflection in a two-dimensional cochlea: Short-wave versus long-wave scattering in the generation of reflection-source otoacoustic emissions118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1895025View Description Hide Description
The theory of coherent reflection filtering explains the empirical form of the cochlear reflectance by showing how it emerges from the coherent “backscattering” of forward-traveling waves by impedance perturbations in the mechanics of the cochlear partition. Since the theory was developed using the one-dimensional (1-D) transmission-line model of the cochlea, an obvious logical shortcoming is the failure of the long-wavelength approximation near the peak of the traveling wave, where coherent backscattering is purported to occur. Indeed, existing theory suggests that wave reflection may be strongly suppressed in the short-wave regime. To understand how short-wave behavior near the peak modifies the predictions of the long-wave theory, this paper solves the scattering problem in the 2-D cochlear model. The 2-D problem is reduced to a 1-D wave equation and the solution expressed as an infinite series in which successive terms arise via multiple scattering within the cochlea. The cochlear reflectance is computed in response-matched models constructed by solving the inverse problem to control for variations in mechanical tuning among models of different heights and dimensionality. Reflection from the peak region is significantly enhanced by the short-wave hydrodynamics, but other conclusions of the 1-D analysis—such as the predicted relation between emission group delay and the wavelength of the traveling wave—carry over with only minor modifications. The results illustrate the important role of passive hydromechanical effects in shaping otoacoustic emissions and cochlear tuning.
118(2005); http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1928767View Description Hide Description
The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of neural synchrony, was used to estimate auditory sensitivity in the eastern screech owl (Megascops asio). The typical screech owl ABR waveform showed two to three prominent peaks occurring within of stimulus onset. As sound pressure levels increased, the ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased. With an increasing stimulus presentation rate, ABR peak amplitude decreased and latency increased. Generally, changes in the ABR waveform to stimulus intensity and repetition rate are consistent with the pattern found in several avian families. The ABR audiogram shows that screech owls hear best between 1.5 and with the most acute sensitivity between . The shape of the average screech owl ABR audiogram is similar to the shape of the behaviorally measured audiogram of the barn owl, except at the highest frequencies. Our data also show differences in overall auditory sensitivity between the color morphs of screech owls.